Debunking MormonThink’s “Early American Influences on the Book of Mormon” (Part 2)

This is Part 2 of a response to Thomas E. Donofrio’s article on MormonThink’s titled “Early American Influences on the Book of Mormon.” Click here to read Part 1. Donofrio argues that works from prominent American authors, such as David Ramsay’s “The History of the American Revolution,” were used as source material for the Book of Mormon. He attempts to prove this by listing a large number of parallels between these works, and suggest that their presence provides strong evidence that the Book of Mormon is a work of fiction based on sources available in Joseph Smith’s day.

Similar to Part 1, I have provided examples of these parallels found in other English translations of ancient documents originally written by Flavius Josephus, Thucydides, Herodotus, Plato, and Aristotle. Any parallels that are not convincingly found in my sources are highlighted in red. Since this is not an exhaustive review of the literature, I cannot account for every single parallel offered by Donofrio, but as I find more relevant sources I have no doubt each parallel will eventually be accounted for. The purpose of this exercise is to show that the parallels found in these American literary sources are not unique and do not provide compelling evidence for their being used as inspiration for writing the Book of Mormon.

The MormonThink article lists the following parallels between a letter written by George Washington (1776) cited in Ramsay’s “History” and the Book of Mormon.

  • Friends and Brethren / My friends and my brethren (Mosiah 4:4)
    • Friends and brothers in arms, we are free to confess that we did lately a thing which was not right” (Herodotus, Book V)
    • “So he got an assembly of his friends and kindred together” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 29:2)
    • “and do not sacrifice friends and kindred to their bitterest enemies” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter III)
    • “All this has been said with a view to counselling the friends and family of Dion” (The Dialogues of Plato, The Seventh Letter)
  • that Being / that Being (Mormon 5.2)
    • “God contains all things, and is a Being every way perfect and happy” (Josephus, Against Apion, Book II, 23)
    • “demonstrate this, I say, by the punishment of Abiram and Dathan, who condemn thee as an insensible Being” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book IV, 3:2)
  • the Justice of their Cause / the justice of the cause (Alma 46:29)
    • “but Aristobulus’s three hundred talents had more weight with him than the justice of the cause” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 6:3)
    • “I am confident in the justice of my cause” (The Dialogues of Plato, Apology)
  • the Blessings of Liberty / the blessings of liberty (Alma 46:13)
    • “Thus the nations over that whole extent of country obtained the blessing of self-government, but they fell again under the sway of kings” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • “Of the two things that God determined to bestow upon us, liberty, and the possession of a Happy Country” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book III, 14:1)
    • “Since, therefore, you are in such circumstances at present, you must either recover that liberty, and so regain a happy and blessed way of living, which is that according to our laws, and the customs of our country, or to submit to the most opprobrious sufferings” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 7:3)
  • Slavery / bondage and slavery (Alma 48:11)
    • “when they were set free from the Babylonian slavery” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 3:1)
    • “in memory of their deliverance from the Egyptian bondage” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 7:2)
  • Circle of Nobility / blood of nobility (Alma 51:21)
    • “thirsting, out of his own natural barbarity, after noble blood” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 11:4)
    • “the nobility of their birth made them unable to contain their indignation” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 23:2)
  • Come then, my brethren, unite with us / unite with us (3 Nephi 3:7)
    • “and to come and unite with them” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book V, 2:12)
    • “instead of being always on the defensive against the Syracusans, unite with us, and in your turn at last threaten them” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX)
  • We have taken up Arms in defence of our Liberty, our Property; our Wives and our Children / they have taken up arms to defend themselves, and their wives, and their children, and their lands (Alma 35:13) / their liberty, their lands, their wives, and their children (Alma 48:10) / a determination to conquer our enemies, and to maintain our lands, and our possessions, and our wives, and our children (Alma 58:12) / in the defense of your liberty (3 Nephi 3:2)
    • “Be ye not afraid of them: remember the Lord, which is great and terrible, and fight for your brethren, your sons, and your daughters, your wives, and your houses” (Bible, Nehemiah 4:14)
    • “So they fought the Romans briskly when they least expected it, being both many in number, and prepared for fighting, and of great alacrity, as esteeming their country, their wives, and their children to be in danger, and easily put the Romans to flight” (Josephus, Wars, Book III, 6:1)
    • “Nay, indeed, Lysias observing the great spirit of the Jews, how they were prepared to die rather than lose their liberty” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 7:5)
    • “when we were so desirous of defending our liberty, and when we received such sore treatment from one another” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:6)
    • “And not contented with ideas derived only from words of the advantages which are bound up with the defence of your country” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI)
  • We are determined to preserve them or die / they were determined to conquer in this place or die (Alma 56:17)
    • we must conquer or hardly get away, as we shall have their horse upon us in great numbers” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX)
    • “also of encouraging them to undergo dangers, and to die for their countries” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 14:4)
    • “Nay, indeed, Lysias observing the great spirit of the Jews, how they were prepared to die rather than lose their liberty” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 7:5)
    • “it can never be that we must conquer without bloodshed on our own side” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 1:6)
  • a Free Government / a free government (Alma 46:35)
    • “Lacedaemonians, propose to put down free governments in the cities of Greece, and to set up tyrannies in their room” (Herodotus, Book V)
  • The cause of America and of liberty / the cause of our liberty (Alma 58:12)
    • “courage not to be moved by any dangers in the cause of liberty” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:7)
    • “For not only did he thus distinguish himself beyond others in the cause of his country’s freedom” (Herodotus, Book VI)
  • his Religion / his religion (Alma 48:13)
    • “how will you call upon God to assist you, when you are voluntarily transgressing against his religion?” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 16:4)
  • the Standard of general Liberty / standard of liberty (Alma 46:36)
    • Raise the standard of revolt in Persia, and then march straight on Media” (Herodotus, Book I)

 

After providing the previous list, Donofrio states:

“How can these similarities be explained? Is it possible that the author of the Book of Mormon had a copy of the letter and used it as a resource? Or, is this just “the language of the day,” as the defenders of Joseph would say. Perhaps it is more reasonable to assume that the letter or the themes contained therein were available in full or in part in other more accessible works. The concepts put forth by Washington may be considered universal. Many of them were used by the other Founding Fathers. Since the parallels cannot be denied, the information must have been available to the author of the Book of Mormon in some form.”

The problem with the authors’ conclusion is that these parallels which are supposedly unique to Washington’s letter are found in documents written nearly two thousand years earlier and translated into English reflecting the “language of the day.”

 

Donofrio then identifies parallels in a letter written by Washington in 1754 and published in the Maryland Gazette. Again, I have listed the parallels they identified followed by their ancient correlates:

  • the following account of my proceedings / make an account of my proceedings (1 Nephi 1:17)
    • “As for the Egyptians’ claim to be of our kindred, they do it on one of the following accounts” (Josephus, Against Apion, Book II, 3)
    • “had written an account of this assembly to Caesar” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 32:5)
    • “He also gives us an account of that ark wherein Noah, the origin of our race, was preserved” (Josephus, Against Apion, Book I, 19)
    • “So God was angry at these proceedings” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book X, 3:1)
    • “in the course of his reign, he performed other actions very worthy of note, of which I will now proceed to give an account” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • The following is an account of these governments, and of the yearly tribute which they paid to the king” (Herodotus, Book III)
  • the numberless Imperfections of it / the imperfections which are in it (Mormon 8:12)
    • My conclusions have cost me some labor from the want of coincidence between accounts of the same occurrences by different eye-witnesses, arising sometimes from imperfect memory, sometimes from undue partiality for one side or the other” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter I)
  • the Bastions are made of Piles driven into the Ground, and about 12 feet above, and sharp at Top / upon those works of timbers there should be a frame of pickets (Alma 50:3)
    • “However, the Sicarri made haste, and presently built another wallIt was framed after the following manner: They laid together great beams of wood lengthways, one close to the end of another, and the same way in which they were cut: there were two of these rows parallel to one another, and laid at such a distance from each other as the breadth of the wall required, and earth was put into the space between those rows. Now, that the earth might not fall away upon the elevation of this bank to a greater height, they further laid other beams over cross them” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:5)
    • “began to fortify Delium, the sanctuary of Apollo, in the following manner. A trench was dug all round the temple and the consecrated ground, and the earth thrown up from the excavation was made to do duty as a wall, in which stakes were also planted, the vines round the sanctuary being cut down and thrown in, together with stones and bricks pulled down from the houses near; every means, in short, being used to run up the rampart. Wooden towers were also erected where they were wanted” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XIV)
    • “where they made places for their ships to lie in, erected a palisade round their camp, and retired into winter quarters” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX)
    • “First he enclosed the town with a palisade formed of the fruit-trees which they cut down…next they threw up a mound against the city” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VIII)
  • every Stratagem / by stratagem (Alma 43:30)
    • “he had routed those four commanders by stratagems” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 21:7)
    • “He therefore prepared to assail them by stratagem” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XV)
    • “Darius now, still keeping to the plan agreed upon, attacked the walls on every side, whereupon Zopyrus played out the remainder of his stratagem” (Herodotus, Book III)
  • a Neck of Land / neck of land (Alma 22:32)
    • “attempted to cut through this narrow neck of land” (Herodotus, Book 1)

 

Donofrio goes on to list more parallels found in Ramsay’s “The History of the American Revolution”:

  • standard of general liberty (p. 219) / standard of liberty (p. 646) / standard of liberty (Alma 62:4)
    • Raise the standard of revolt in Persia, and then march straight on Media” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • calling to his standard fifteen hundred Thracian mercenaries and all the Edonians” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XV)
  • planted the standard of loyalty (p. 442) / planted the standard of liberty (Alma 46:36)
    • Raise the standard of revolt in Persia, and then march straight on Media” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • “An antique iron sword is planted on the top of every such mound, and serves as the image of Mars” (Herodotus, Book IV)
  • flock to their standard (p. 274) / flock unto his standard (Alma 62:5)
    • The multitude also flocked about him greatly, and made mighty acclamations to him” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XVII, 12:1)
    • calling to his standard fifteen hundred Thracian mercenaries and all the Edonians” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XV)
    • “And he will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, and will hiss unto them from the end of the earth: and, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly” (Bible, Isaiah 5:26)
  • the blessings of liberty (p. 85) / the blessings of liberty (Alma 46:13)
    • “Thus the nations over that whole extent of country obtained the blessing of self-government, but they fell again under the sway of kings” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • “Of the two things that God determined to bestow upon us, liberty, and the possession of a Happy Country” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book III, 14:1)
    • “Since, therefore, you are in such circumstances at present, you must either recover that liberty, and so regain a happy and blessed way of living, which is that according to our laws, and the customs of our country, or to submit to the most opprobrious sufferings” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 7:3)
  • liberties, property, wives and children (p. 277) / Their liberty, their lands, their wives, and their children (Alma 48:10)
    • “Be ye not afraid of them: remember the Lord, which is great and terrible, and fight for your brethren, your sons, and your daughters, your wives, and your houses” (Bible, Nehemiah 4:14)
    • “They added this also, that when they had built cities, wherein they might preserve their children, and wives, and possessions, if he would bestow them upon them, they would go along with the rest of the army” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book IV, 7:3)
    • “the Syracusans to fight for their country, and each individual for his safety that day and liberty hereafter” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX)
  • a free government (p. 162) / a free government (Alma 46:35)
    • “Lacedaemonians, propose to put down free governments in the cities of Greece, and to set up tyrannies in their room” (Herodotus, Book V)
  • the cause of liberty (p. 90) / the cause of liberty (Alma 51:17)
    • “courage not to be moved by any dangers in the cause of liberty” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:7)
  • the cause of American liberty (p. 512) / the cause of our liberty (Alma 58:12)
    • “courage not to be moved by any dangers in the cause of liberty” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:7)
  • in the cause of their country (p. 460) / in the cause of their country (Alma 56:11)
    • “courage not to be moved by any dangers in the cause of liberty” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:7)
    • “For not only did he thus distinguish himself beyond others in the cause of his country’s freedom” (Herodotus, Book VI)
  • the justice of the cause (p. 267) / the justice of their cause (p.181) / the justice of our cause (p. 178) / their cause to be just (p. 185) / the justice of the cause (Alma 46:29) / a just cause (Alma 55:1)
    • “but Aristobulus’s three hundred talents had more weight with him than the justice of the cause” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 6:3)
    • “putting his trust in God, because he was going to war in a just cause” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VII, 6:2)
    • “I am confident in the justice of my cause” (The Dialogues of Plato, Apology)
  • died in the cause of liberty (p. 178) / died in the cause of their country (Alma 56:11)
    • “courage not to be moved by any dangers in the cause of liberty” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:7)
    • “also of encouraging them to undergo dangers, and to die for their countries” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 14:4)
    • “For not only did he thus distinguish himself beyond others in the cause of his country’s freedom” (Herodotus, Book VI)
  • in defence of their liberties (p. 634) / in the defence of your liberty (3 Nephi 3:2)
    • “when we were so desirous of defending our liberty, and when we received such sore treatment from one another” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:6)
  • spirit of freedom (p. 156) / spirit of freedom (Alma 60:25)
    • “Such was the natural nobility of this city, so sound and healthy was the spirit of freedom among us” (The Dialogues of Plato, Menexenus)
    • “trusting less in system and policy than to the native spirit of our citizens” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI)
    • “Nay, indeed, Lysias observing the great spirit of the Jews, how they were prepared to die rather than lose their liberty” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 7:5)
  • rights and privileges (p. 401) / rights and privileges (Mosiah 29:32)
    • “made this speech concerning the rights and privileges of Hyrcanus” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XIV, 10:7)
  • to maintain their rights and privileges (p. 232) / to maintain their rights and the privileges (Alma 51:6)
    • their rights and privileges have been preserved by those presidents who have at divers times been sent thither” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XIX, 5:2)
    • “and every body caught up their arms, in order to maintain the liberty of their metropolis” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 4:2)
  • their rights and liberties (p. 232) / their rights and their liberties (Alma 43:26)
    • “their rights and privileges have been preserved by those presidents who have at divers times been sent thither” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XIX, 5:2)
    • “these overthrowers of our liberties deserve to be destroyed” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 3:10)
  • safety and welfare (p. 398) / welfare and safety (Alma 48:12)
    • “he determined rather to trust the safety and care of the child to God” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book II, 9:4)
    • “and this was the method by which these men found safety and security under the calamity that was ready to overtake them” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book V, 1:16)
    • “you are to guard the bridge with all care, and watch over its safety and preservation” (Herodotus, Book IV)
  • determined on death or victory (p. 378) / determined to conquer in this place or die (Alma 56:17)
    • we must conquer or hardly get away, as we shall have their horse upon us in great numbers” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX)
    • “also of encouraging them to undergo dangers, and to die for their countries” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 14:4)
    • “Nay, indeed, Lysias observing the great spirit of the Jews, how they were prepared to die rather than lose their liberty” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 7:5)
    • “it can never be that we must conquer without bloodshed on our own side” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 1:6)
  • their Creator (p. 15) / their Creator (Omni 1:7)
    • “an instance of impiety against God our Creator” (Josephus, Wars, Book III, 8:5)
    • “bring upon us impiety towards our Creator” (Josephus, Wars, Book III, 8:5)
  • critical time (p. 512) / critical time (Alma 51:9)
    • “His arrival chanced at a critical moment” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXI)
    • “as he thought that they were in a critical position” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXI)
  • critical circumstances (p. 448) / critical circumstances (Alma 57:16)
    • “His arrival chanced at a critical moment” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXI)
    • “as he thought that they were in a critical position” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXI)
  • marching through the wilderness (p. 220) / marching round about in the wilderness (Alma 43:24)
    • “he caused the army to remove and to march through the wilderness and through Arabia” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book IV, 4:7)
  • began their march (p. 341) / began their march (3 Nephi 4:25)
    • “and Archidamus learnt that the Athenians had still not thoughts of submitting, he at length began his march” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI)
    • “the crews ran them ashore, and abandoning them began their march along the continent” (Herodotus, Book VI)
  • had begun his march (p. 573) / had begun his march (Alma 52:15)
    • “and Archidamus learnt that the Athenians had still not thoughts of submitting, he at length began his march” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI)
    • “the crews ran them ashore, and abandoning them began their march along the continent” (Herodotus, Book VI)
  • marched over (p. 381) / marched over (Alma 43:25)
    • “Titus had marched over that desert which lies between Egypt and Syria” (Josephus, Wars, Book V, 1:1)
    • “he left their ships high and dry and joined most of the island to the mainland, and then marched over on foot and captured it” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter IV)
  • places of security (p. 345) / places of security (Alma 50:4)
    • “and that it was, on other accounts, a place of great security to them” (Josephus, Wars, Book III, 7:3)
    • “to snatch up in haste and get across the river into a place of security” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX)
  • place of retreat (p. 368) / places of retreat (Alma 49:11)
    • “was itself compassed with a very strong wall, insomuch that if the city were taken, that temple would be a second place of refuge for the enemy to retire to” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 7:1)
    • “They must make Megara their naval station as a place to retreat to and a base from which to attack” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XIX)
  • little army (p. 425) / little army (Alma 56:19)
    • “But then (says Apion) Onias brought a small army afterward upon the city” (Josephus, Against Apion, Book II, 5)
    • “Herod made all excursion upon them with a small body of his men” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 15:3)
    • “did not bear the onset of a small body of the Roman army” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 16:4)
  • little band (p. 486) / little band (Alma 57:6)
    • “though but a small band against a numerous host, they engaged in battle” (Herodotus, Book 1, 176)
    • “Herod made all excursion upon them with a small body of his men” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 15:3)
  • fought and bled (p. 541) / fought and bled (Alma 60:9)
    • “these men, in the assertion of their resolve not to lose her, nobly fought and died” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI)
    • “and fought and conquered them” (Herodotus, Book VI)
  • scene of bloodshed (p. 522) / scene of bloodshed (Alma 28:10)
    • “and introduced the most complete scene of iniquity in all instances that were practicable” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:1)
    • “they went on in the slaughter of persons of every age, till all the place was overflowed with blood, and fifty thousand of them lay dead upon heaps” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 18:8)
    • “he should not be able to be subservient to Caius in the dedication of his statue, and that there must be a great deal of bloodshed” (Josephus, Antiquities, book XVIII, 8:3)
  • among their slain (p. 380) / among the number who were slain (Helaman 1:30)
    • Among the slain was also Procles, the colleague of Demosthenes” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter XI)
    • “Search was made among the slain by order of the queen” (Herodotus, Book I)
  • in great numbers (p. 376) / in great numbers (Alma 57:14)
    • “But now the Jews got together in great numbers with their wives and children into that plain” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 10:3)
  • a vast number (p. 260) / a vast number (Alma 56:10)
    • “he also pressed hard upon the hindermost, and slew a vast number of them” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 17:6)
    • “she destroyed a vast number of Egyptians” (Herodotus, Book II)
  • ways and means (p. 396) / ways and means (Mosiah 4:29)
    • “for different men seek after happiness in different ways and by different means” (Aristotle, Politics, Part VIII)
    • “let us now turn to the question of possibility and ways and means” (The Dialogues of Plato, Republic, Book V)
  • precious metals (p. 185) / precious metals (Helaman 6:9)
    • “copper, silver, and other precious metal” (The Dialogues of Plato, Stateman)
    • “their precious vessels of silver and of gold” (Bible, Daniel 11:8)
    • “I will make a man more precious than fine gold” (Bible, Isaiah 13:12)
    • “Among the Ethiopians copper is of all metals the most scarce and valuable” (Herodotus, Book III)
    • “and that this was of old esteemed the most precious of all metals” (Dr. Hudson, Josephus Commentary, Josephus, Antiquities, Book XI, 5:2, footnote 8)
  • did not molest them (p. 416) / did not molest them (Mosiah 19:29)
    • “they are strong, and that if we do not molest them it is because we are afraid” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XVII)
  • took possession of (p. 429) / took possession of (Mosiah 23:29)
    • “cut down by those Jews who took possession of the place afterward” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 6:3)
    • “The Persians, on their return, took possession of an empty town” (Herodotus, Book 1, 164)
    • “The Athenians also took possession of the towns” (Thucydides, Chapter IX)
  • take command (p. 412) / took command (Alma 53:2)
    • “a steady friend to the Potidaeans, took command of the expedition” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter II))
  • take up arms (p. 370) / take up arms (Alma 2:10)
    • “it was this Florus who necessitated us to take up arms against the Romans” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XX, 11:1)
    • “but I do bid you not to take up arms at once” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter III)
  • obliged to flee (p. 450) / obliged to flee (Alma 59:8)
    • “but followed him at his heels; he was also obliged to make haste in his attempt” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 6:6)
    • “and the rest of the entire nation were obliged to save themselves by flight” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 16:4)
  • were obliged to (p. 366) / were obliged to (Alma 59:8)
    • “they were obliged to expose themselves to danger by their very despair of victory” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 19:5)
    • “some of those who were obliged to leap down from the cliffs without their shields” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXII)
  • The stratagem (p. 372) / by stratagem (Alma 52:10)
    • “he had routed those four commanders by stratagems” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 21:7)
    • “He therefore prepared to assail them by stratagem” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XV)
    • “Darius now, still keeping to the plan agreed upon, attacked the walls on every side, whereupon Zopyrus played out the remainder of his stratagem” (Herodotus, Book III)
  • preparations for (p. 377) / preparations for (Jarom 1:8)
    • “While he was still engaged in making preparations for his attack” (Herodotus, Book 1)
    • “Syracuse pursued her preparations for war” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX)
  • preparations were made (p. 445) / made preparations (Alma 24:20)
    • “and were not disposed for the preservation of those by whom these preparations were made” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 8:7)
    • “When, however, it became known that he had left Marathon, and was marching upon the city, preparations were made for resistance” (Herodotus, Book 1)
  • upwards of (p. 338) / upwards of (Alma 57:14))
    • “the Thessalians convoying them, as far as to Strymon, yet if they had not gotten that bridge, the river being upwards nothing but a vast fen” (Thucydides, Hobbes Translation, Book IV, 108)
  • Moravian towns (p. 475) / Morianton (Alma 50:25)
    • Moriah (Bible, 2 Chronicles 3:1/Genesis 22:2)
    • “a place called formerly the Citadel, though afterwards its name was changed to Antonia” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 3:3)
    • Eshton (Bible, 1 Chronicles 4:11)
  • The town was also picquetted in with strong picquets, and surrounded with a ditch, and a bank, near the height of a common parapet (p. 568) / formed of earth with a parapet and ditch (p. 276) / formed of piquets (p. 364) / a picket of 150 men (p. 435) / a frame of pickets built upon the timbers (Alma 50:3) / works of pickets (Alma 50:4) / bank of the ditch (Alma 53:4)
    • A trench was dug all around the temple and the consecrated ground, and the earth thrown up from the excavation was made to do duty as a wall, in which stakes were also planted…together with stones and bricks pulled down from the houses near” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XIV)
  • erection of works (p. 351) / works of timbers built up to the height of a man (Alma 50:2)
    • “where they made places for their ships to lie in, erected a palisade round their camp, and retired into winter quarters” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX)
    • Wooden towers were also erected where they were wanted” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XIV)
    • “First he enclosed the town with a palisade formed of the fruit-trees which they cut down…next they threw up a mound against the city” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VIII)
    • “But the Plataeans, observing the progress of the mound, constructed a wall of wood and fixed it upon that part of the city wall against which the mound was being erected” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VIII)
  • a work was thrown up (478) / the bank which had been thrown up (Alma 49:18)
    • “A trench was dug all around the temple and the consecrated ground, and the earth thrown up from the excavation was made to do duty as a wall” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XIV)
  • leveled with the dust (p. 515) / level them with the earth (Alma 51:17)
    • “he resolved to burn Athens, and to cast down and level with the ground whatever remained standing of the walls, temples, and other buildings” (Herodotus, Book IX)
  • driving the Americans before them (p. 289) / driving the Nephites before them (Alma 51:28)
    • “he returned back to the remainders of Idumea, and driving the nation all before him from all quarters” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 9:10)
  • and drove him (p. 441) / and drove him (Ether 13:29)
    • “But the seditious threw stones at him, and drove him away” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 1:3)
  • alternately drove, and were driven by each other (p. 378) / they were driven back, or they drove them back (Mosiah 11:18)
    • “but, upon the sight of the people of Ai, with them they were driven back, and lost thirty-six of their men” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book V, 1:12)
    • “he made an irruption into Galilee, and met his enemies, and drove them back to the place which they had left” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 17:3)
  • Pressed on their rear (p. 175) / pressed upon their rear (Alma 52:36)
    • “which made them disperse themselves, and run to the city, as fast as every one of them were able. So Titus pressed upon the hindmost, and slew them” (Josephus, Wars, Book III, 10:3)
    • “he put the enemy to flight, and pursued them, and pressed upon them, and slew them” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VIII, 14:4)
    • “he also parted his army into three bodies, and fell upon the backs of their enemies” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 8:3)
    • “if the enemy advanced into the plain against the troops of Agis, they might fall upon his rear with their cavalry” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XVI)
  • attacked in the rear as well as in the front (p. 426) / both in their front and in their rear (3 Nephi 4:25) / bring them up in the rear at the same time they were met in the front (Alma 56:23)
    • “when I had laid an ambush in a certain valley, not far from the banks, I provoked those that belonged to the king to come to a battle, and gave orders to my own soldiers to turn their backs upon them, until they should have drawn the enemy away from their camp, and brought them out into the field, which was done accordingly; for Sylla, supposing that our army did really run away, was ready to pursue them, when our soliders lay in ambush took them on their backs, and put them all into great disorder. I also immediately made a sudden turn with my own forces, and met those of the king’s party, and put them to flight” (Life of Flavius Josephus, 72)
  • to the left (p. 379) / to the left (Alma 56:37)
    • “he next advanced into the rest of Macedonia to the left of Pella and Cyrrhus” (Thucydides)
    • “he throws it to the left, and bears it on his shoulder” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book III, 7:2)
    • “Now Mithridates had the right wing, and Antipater the left; and when it came to a fight, that wing where Mithridates was gave way” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XIV, 8:2)
  • on the right (p. 380) / on the right (Alma 58:17)
    • “That of their opponents was as followed: On the right were the Mantineans, the action taking place in their country” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XVI)
    • “They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 8:9)
  • His army was posted…on both sides of the North river (p. 435) / the armies of Moroni…on both sides of the river (Alma 43:52)
    • “Accordingly, Saul made an irruption into the country of the Amalekites, and set men in several parties in ambush at the river, that so he might not only do them a mischief by open fighting, but might fall upon them unexpectedly in the ways, and might thereby compass them round about, and kill them” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 7:2)
  • river Delaware (p. 343) / river Sidon (Alma 2:15)
    • “by birth a Jew, but brought up at Sidon with one of the Roman freed-men” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 7:1)
  • by a secret way (p. 217) / by a secret way (Helaman 2:11)
    • “he had a secret passage under ground leading from the citadel to the sea” (Herodotus, Book 3, 146)
  • a profound silence (p. 187) / a profound silence (Alma 55:17)
    • A deep silence also, and a kind of deadly night, had seized upon the city” (Josephus, Wars, Book V, 12:3)
    • “but a terrible solitude on every side, with a fire within the place, as well as a perfect silence” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 9:2)
    • “When this thought smote him he fetched a long breath, and breaking his deep silence, groaned out aloud” (Herodotus, Book I)
  • hemmed in (p. 383) / hemmed in (Alma 22:33)
    • “the enemy being hemmed in on every side by infantry and cavalry” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XVI)
  • withdraw themselves (p. 399) / withdraw themselves (3 Nephi 4:23)
    • “yet they did not withdraw themselves out of the dangers they were in” (Josephus, Wars, Book V, 11:5)
  • direct course (p. 412) / direct course (Alma 37:24)
    • “we came with a straight course unto Coos” (Bible, Acts 21:1)
    • “the doors whereof, being open, they thought had been the gates of the city, and that there had been a direct way through the other side” (Thucydides, Hobbes Translation, Book II, 4)
  • armies which were coming against them (p. 273) / his army coming against them (Alma 52:28)
    • “The Athenians seeing them all coming against them” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XIII)
    • “understanding that the Persian armament was coming against them” (Herodotus, Book 6, 100)
  • commenced his attack (p. 345) / battle had commenced (Alma 56:49)
    • “a war was commenced presently” (Josephus, Wars, Book VI, 3:3)
    • “while he that sent me, and not I, will commence a war against you” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 10:4)
  • the commencement of (p. 379) / the commencement of (1 Nephi 1:4)
    • “for the end that was now put to their civil miseries, and for the commencement of their hopes of future prosperity and happiness” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 5:6)
  • accomplishing the designs (p. 260) / accomplish his designs (Alma 47:16)
    • “for he either corrupted Alexander’s acquaintance with money, or got into their favor by flatteries; by which two means he gained all his designs, and brought them to betray their master” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 24:1)
    • “all these designs of yours cannot be accomplished by you without my help” (The Dialogues of Plato, First Alcibiades)
  • The active zeal of the industrious provincials completed lines of defence by the morning, which astonished the garrison (p. 245) / the chief captains of the Lamanites were astonished exceedingly, because of the wisdom of the Nephites in preparing their places of security (Alma 49:5)
    • these workmen went on with their works in safety, and raised the wall higher, and that both by day and by night, till it was twenty cubits high. He also built a good number of towers upon the wall, and fitted it to strong battlements. This greatly discouraged the Romans, who in their own opinions were already gotten within the walls, while they were now at once astonished at Josephus’s contrivance, and at the fortitude of the citizens that were in the city” (Josephus, Wars, Book III, 7:10)
  • disappointments (p. 379) / disappointment (Alma 49:4)
    • “they had feared the reinforcement brought by Demosthenes, and deep, in consequence, was the despondency of the Athenians, and great their disappointment” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXIII)
  • disappointed (p. 414) / disappointed (Alma 56:23)
    • “but when they went out to fight, they were always disappointed” (Josephus, Wars, Book V, 9:4)
  • embarrassments (p. 376) / embarrassments (Alma 58:9)
    • “These causes, the great losses from Decelea, and the other heavy charges that fell upon them, produced their financial embarrassment” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXI)

 

Donofrio provides the following parallel in Ramsay’s “Life of George Washington”:

  • The Americans moved from their encampment on the Skippack road in the evening of the 3rd of October, with the intention of surprising their adversaries early next morning, and to attack both wings in front and rear at the same time / And this they did do in the night-time, and got on their march beyond the robbers, so that on the morrow, when the robbers began their march, they were met by the armies of the Nephites both in their front and in their rear (3 Nephi 4:25)
    • “when I had laid an ambush in a certain valley, not far from the banks, I provoked those that belonged to the king to come to a battle, and gave orders to my own soldiers to turn their backs upon them, until they should have drawn the enemy away from their camp, and brought them out into the field, which was done accordingly; for Sylla, supposing that our army did really run away, was ready to pursue them, when our soliders lay in ambush took them on their backs, and put them all into great disorder. I also immediately made a sudden turn with my own forces, and met those of the king’s party, and put them to flight” (Life of Flavius Josephus, 72)

 

Donofrio continues with Ramsay’s “History”:

  • the Americans severely felt the scarcity of provisions. Their murmurs became audible (p. 488) / were this all we had suffered we would not murmur (Alma 60:4)
    • “And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness…for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness to kill this whole assembly with hunger” (Bible, Exodus 16:2)
  • a vigorous determined opposition was the only alternative for the preservation of their property, their children and their wives (p. 371) / and were fixed with a determination to conquer our enemies, and to maintain our lands, and our possessions, and our wives, and our children (Alma 58:12)
    • “They added this also, that when they had built cities, wherein they might preserve their children, and wives, and possessions, if he would bestow them upon them, they would go along with the rest of the army” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book IV, 7:3)
    • “Be ye not afraid of them: remember the Lord, which is great and terrible, and fight for your brethren, your sons, and your daughters, your wives, and your houses” (Bible, Nehemiah 4:14)
  • fixed in his resolution (p. 379) / a determined resolution (p. 229) / fixed in his determination (p. 397) / fixed in their minds with a determined resolution (Alma 47:6)
  • with firmness (p. 378) / with such firmness (Mormon 2:25)
    • “partly on account of the firmness of the opposition made by the Jews” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XVIII, 8:4)
  • threatening them with destruction (p. 257) / threatened them with destruction (1 Nephi 18:20)
    • “unwilling to bring the threatened destruction on themselves by giving up the man” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • “and threatened their city every day with open destruction” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 1:2)
    • “for he died not long after he had written to Petronius that epistle which threatened him with death” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XVIII, 8:9)
  • on his right hand was justice (p. 664) / the sword of his justice in his right hand (3 Nephi 29:4)
    • “We will lend thee our right hand and a sword…As soon as they said this, they began to thrust their swords at him” (Josephus, Wars, Book III, 8:4)
    • “so that every one of them had his right hand upon his sword, in order to defend himself” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 4:7)
    • “O thou sword of the Lord, how long will it be ere thou be quiet? Put up thyself into thy scabbard, rest, and be still” (Bible, Jeremiah 47:6)
  • His soul was harrowed up (p. 288) / his soul began to be harrowed up (Alma 14:6)
    • “And he brought out the people that were in it, and cut them with saws, and with harrows of iron, and with axes” (Bible, 1 Chronicles 20:3)
  • gain their point (p. 618) / gain the point (Alma 46:29)
    • “which he might prevent by placing his camp round about them; and that they should think it a great point gained” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 2:3)
  • an ignominious death (p. 295) / an ignominious death (Alma 1:15)
    • “he died ignominiously by the dangerous manner of his assault” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VII, 7:2)
  • distinction of ranks (p. 30) / distinguished by ranks (3 Nephi 6:12)
    • “Now all the soldiery marched out beforehand by companies, and in their several ranks, under their several commanders” (Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 5:4)
  • one heart and one mind (p. 110) / in one mind and in one heart (2 Nephi 1:21)
    • “but, above all things, let us be of one mind, and let us honor God” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book III, 14:1)
    • “And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul” (Bible, Acts 4:32)
  • the minds of the people (p. 450) / the minds of the people (Alma 17:6)
    • “he could no other way bend the minds of the Jews so as to receive Herod” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XV, 1:2)
    • “for nothing does so much cement the minds of men together” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 4:3)
    • “Nor indeed were the minds of the Idumeans at rest” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 4:5)
  • warm tempers (p. 179) / warm dispute (Alma 51:4)
    • “Those that were of the warmest tempers thought he should bring the whole army against the city” (Josephus, Wars, Book V, 12:1)
    • “and being a young man, of a warm temper” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VIII, 7:8)
  • much confusion (p. 190) / much confusion (Alma 52:28)
    • “the multitude were in great confusion” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 7:22)
  • an equal chance (p. 533) / an equal chance (Alma 49:22)
    • (when referring to “an equal chance,” Mormon is referring to “equal terms” for battle)
    • “the knowledge which can give a specious criticism of an enemy’s plans in theory, but fails to assail them with equal success in practice” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter III)
    • “It was thought that their attack would be met by men full of courage and on equal terms with their assailants” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI)
    • “This success of Simon excited the zealots afresh; and though they were afraid to fight him openly in a fair battle, yet did they lay ambushes in the passes” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 9:8)
  • stand or fall (p. 354) / stand or fall (Alma 41:7)
    • “to his own master he standeth or falleth” (Bible, Romans 14:4)
    • “you chose the Athenians, and with them you must stand or fall” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter X)
  • learn wisdom (p. 665) / learn wisdom (Alma 38:9)
    • “I neither learned wisdom, nor have the knowledge of the holy” (Proverbs 30:3)
  • present and future generations (p. 667) / future day (p. 399) / future day (Enos 1:13) / unto us as well as unto future generations (Alma 24:14)
    • “to be a witness to future generations of what he had foretold” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 4:6)
    • “to leave behind thee to all future generations a memory beyond even Harmodius and Aristogeiton” (Herodotus, Book VI)
    • “lest thou bring destruction on thine own head at some future time” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • “in order that if at any future time peace should be made with Athens” (Thucydides, Chapter X)
    • “But in future ages the people added new banks” (Josephus, Wars, Book V, 5:1)
  • the art of war (p. 443) / the arts of war (Ether 13:16)
    • “by the Romans’ skill in the art of war” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 18:2)
    • “novices in the art of war” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX)
  • lust of power and gain (p. 324) / to get power and gain (Ether 8:22)
    • “wholly carried away with the lust of power” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 4:4)
    • “For the love of gain would reconcile the weaker to the dominion of the stronger” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter I)
    • “the vision foretold that he should obtain power and great wealth” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book II, 2:2)
  • to usurp the executive power (p. 231) / to usurp power (Alma 60:27)
    • “he did an injury to Caesar, by usurping that authority before it was determined for him by Caesar” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XVII, 9:5)
    • “the orators lead the people, but their ignorance of military matters prevents them from usurping power” (Aristotle, Politics, Part V)
  • the powers of the earth (p. 416) / the powers of the earth (3 Nephi 28:39)
    • “where Caesar and Antony were to fight for the supreme power of the world” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XV, 5:1)
  • lull them into a fatal security (p. 403) / lull them away into carnal security (2 Nephi 28:21)
    • “For let us never be elated by the fatal hope of the war being quickly ended by the devastation of their lands” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter III)
    • “the gates also being left open through their feeling of security” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXI)
  • a state of nature (p. 123) / a state of nature (Alma 41:11)
    • “The legislator was under the idea that war was the natural state of all makind, and that peace is only a pretence (The Dialogues of Plato, The Laws: The Preamble, Book I)
    • “having his hand recovered to its natural state” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VIII, 8:5)
    • “But as for his being ensnared by a woman, that is to be ascribed to human nature, which is took weak to resist the temptations to that sin” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book V, 8:12)
    • “In the confusion into which life was now thrown in the cities, human nature, always rebelling against the law and now its master, gladly showed itself ungoverned in passion, above respect for justice, and the enemy of all superiority” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter X)
  • humble servant (p. 408) / humble servant (Alma 8:19)
    • “Again, if the woman is not rich, her husband will not be her humble servant” (The Dialogues of Plato, The Laws: Preamble, Book VIII)
  • compel the inhabitants to take arms (p. 213) / compel them to arms (Alma 47:3)
    • “they forced the Jews that were among them to bear arms against their own countrymen, which it is unlawful for us to do” (Life of Flavius Josephus, 6)
    • “by which means they were compelled to come out to fight” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 19:5)
    • “the Rhodians, Argives by race, were compelled to bear arms against the Dorian Syracusans and their own colonists” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXIII)
  • their American brethren…taking up arms against them (p. 485) / commanded them that they should take up arms against their brethren (Alma 2:10)
    • “who necessitated us to take up arms against the Romans” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XX, 11:1)
    • “they forced the Jews that were among them to bear arms against their own countrymen, which it is unlawful for us to do” (Life of Flavius Josephus, 6)
    • “The Jews might collect this unlawfulness of fighting against their brethren from that law of Moses” (Life of Flavius Josephus, 6, Commentary, Footnote 7)
    • “they fought against their own countrymen” (Josephus, Wars, Book III, 18:3)
    • “fought against their own kindred” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XVII, 10:10)
  • by these names (p. 656) / by these names (Jacob 1:14)
    • “And great, in truth, and little, and light, and heavy—will they at all more truly be called by these names which we may give them, than by the opposite names?” (The Dialogues of Plato, Republic, Book V)
  • called themselves loyalists (p. 441) / called themselves Zoramites (Alma 30:59)
    • “whom the Greeks living near the Hypanis call Borysthenites, while they call themselves Oliopolites” (Herodotus, Book IV)
    • “there sprang up another sort of robbers in Jerusalem, which were called Sicarri” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 13:3)
    • “They were called Amalekites” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book III, 2:1)
  • put to death these harmless, inoffensive people, though they made no resistance (p. 475) / they suffered themselves to be slain (Alma 27:3)
    • “But they said, We will not come forth, neither will we do the king’s commandment, to profane the sabbath day. So then they gave them the battle with all speed. Howbeit they answered them not, neither cast they a stone at them, nor stopped the places where they lay hid; but said, Let us die all in our innocency: heaven and earth shall testify for us, that ye put us to death wrongfully. So they rose up against them in battle on the sabbath, and slew them, with their wives and children, and their cattle, to the number of a thousand people” (Apocrypha, I Maccabees 2:34-38)
    • “as soon as, according to the articles of capitulation, they had all laid down their shields and their swords, and were under no further suspicion of any harm, but were going away, Eleazar’s men attacked them after a violent manner, and encompassed them round, and slew them, while they neither defended themselves, nor entreated for mercy, but only cried out upon the breach of their articles of capitulation and their oaths” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 17:10)
  • a silent adieu (p. 644) / Brethren, adieu (Jacob 7:24)
    • “with such portion of their goods and chattels as the vessels could bear, bade adieu to Cyrnus and sailed to Rhegium” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • “Thus have I set down the geneology of my family as I have found it described in the public records, and so bid adieu to those who calumniate me” (Life of Flavius Josephus, 1)
  • From these events…I return to relate (p. 440) / And now I return to an account (Alma 43:3)
    • “since this is not a proper time for domestical lamentations, but for historical narrations; I therefore return to the operations that follow this sedition” (Josephus, Wars, Book V, 1:3)
    • I return now from this digression” (Josephus, Wars, Book III, 5:8)
    • Having described this, I return to the subject on which I originally proposed to discourse” (Herodotus, Book IV)
  • I proceed to relate real events (p. 586) / I proceed with my record (Ether 2:3)
    • As I proceed, therefore, I shall accurately describe what is contained in our records” (Josephus, Antiquities, Preface, 3)
  • shall be hereafter related (p. 587) / shall be spoken hereafter (Helaman 2:12)
    • “which we shall speak more in its proper place hereafter” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 1:1)
    • “whose structure, largeness, and magnificence we shall describe hereafter” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 21:9)
  • Thus ended the (p. 450) / Thus ended the (Mosiah 29:47)
    • “And thus ended the siege of Jerusalem” (Josephus, Wars, Book VI, 10:1)
    • “And thus ended the affairs of the plundering of Ziklag” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 14:6)

 

Donofrio identifies parallels in Ramsay’s citation of the Declaration of Independence in his “History”:

  • friends and brethren / my friends and my brethren (Mosiah 4:4)
    • Friends and brothers in arms, we are free to confess that we did lately a thing which was not right” (Herodotus, Book V)
    • “So he got an assembly of his friends and kindred together” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 29:2)
    • “Where comes this solitude, and desertion of thy friends and relations?” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XVI, 11:5)
    • “and do not sacrifice friends and kindred to their bitterest enemies” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter III)
    • “All this has been said with a view to counselling the friends and family of Dion” (The Dialogues of Plato, The Seventh Letter)
  • a free people / a free people (Alma 21:21)
    • “he would have the greatest honors decreed to him that a free people could bestow” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XIX, 3:3)
    • “shake off the yoke of servitude, and to become a free people” (Herodotus, Book I)
  • the powers of the earth / the powers of the earth (3 Nephi 28:39)
    • “These ascribe all to fate [or providence], and to God, and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 8:14)
    • “where Caesar and Antony were to fight for the supreme power of the world” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XV, 5:1)
  • the works of death / the work of death (Alma 43:37)
    • “at length undertook the work of bringing Alexander and Aristobulus to their graves” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 26:2)
    • “they did themselves the works of war and tyranny, after an insolent manner” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 5:5)
  • insurrections amongst us / insurrections among you (Alma 60:27)
    • “for the Jews hoped that all of their nation which were beyond Euphrates would have raised an insurrection together with them” (Josephus, Wars, Preface, 2)
    • “and you will free yourselves from the imputation made against you, of not supporting insurrection” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter IX)

 

Donofrio identifies parallels found in Ramsay’s reprint of George Washington’s farewell address (September 19, 1796) in “The Life of George Washington.” The address was also published in newspapers, such as The Independent Chronicle (September 26, 1796, Boston, Massachusetts):

  • combinations or associations / combinations (Alma 37:31)
    • “it was this clause that was the real origin of the panic in Peloponnese, by exciting suspicions of a Lacedaemonian and Athenian combination against their liberties” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XV)
  • to subvert the power of the people, and to usurp for themselves the reigns of government / those who have desires to usurp power (Alma 60:27)
    • “he did an injury to Caesar, by usurping that authority before it was determined for him by Caesar” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XVII, 9:5)
    • “the orators lead the people, but their ignorance of military matters prevents them from usurping power” (Aristotle, Politics, Part V)
  • love of power and proneness to abuse / it had it not been for the desire of power (Alma 60:16)
    • “wholly carried away with the lust of power” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 4:4)
  • which binds a dutiful citizen to his country / which binds us to our lands (Alma 44:5)
    • “To bind themselves yet more closely together, it seemed good to them to leave a common monument” (Herodotus, Book II)
    • “ ‘I, too,’ adds Cleinias, ‘have a tie which binds me to you’” (The Dialogues of Plato, The Laws: Preamble, Book I)
  • as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest / And I soon go to the place of my rest…in the mansions of my Father (Enos 1:27)
    • “In my father’s house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you” (Bible, John 14:2)
    • “Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest” (Bible, Matthew 11:28)
    • “the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest” (Bible, Isaiah 34:14)
  • a free government / a free government (Alma 51:6)
    • “Lacedaemonians, propose to put down free governments in the cities of Greece, and to set up tyrannies in their room” (Herodotus, Book V)

 

Donofrio identifies parallels in Ramsay’s reproduction of Washington’s last written letter:

  • they will stand or fall / thus they stand or fall (Alma 41:7)
    • “to his own master he standeth or falleth” (Bible, Romans 14:4)
    • “you chose the Athenians, and with them you must stand or fall” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter X)
  • the defense of his own person and property / the defense of his property and his own life (Ether 14:2)
    • “there shall be three prisons—one for common offences against life and property” (The Dialogues of Plato, The Law: Preamble, Book X)
  • I now bid adieu / Brethren, adieu (Jacob 7:27)
    • “with such portion of their goods and chattels as the vessels could bear, bade adieu to Cyrnus and sailed to Rhegium” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • “Thus have I set down the geneology of my family as I have found it described in the public records, and so bid adieu to those who calumniate me” (Josephus, Life of Flavius Josephus, 1)

 

Donofrio also identifies parallels from writings of other Founding Framers, such as Samuel Adams delivering his “American Independence” speech to the State House in Philadelphia on August 1, 1776.

  • Priestcraft / priestcraft (Alma 1:12)
  • Providence / providence (Jacob 2:13)
    • “However, it came to pass, as it seems by the providence of God, when he intended to bring Antipater to punishment, that she fell not upon her head” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 30:5)
    • “Of a truth Divine Providence does appear to be, as indeed one might expect beforehand, a wise contriver” (Herodotus, Book III)
  • precious in his sight / precious in his sight (Jacob 2:21)
    • Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints” (Bible, Psalm 116:15)
    • “O man of God, I pray thee, let my life, and the life of these fifty thy servants, be precious in thy sight” (Bible, 2 Kings 1:13)
    • “with such stones of other sorts also as were most curious and best esteemed, as being most precious in their kind” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 2:9)
  • justice and mercy / justice and mercy (Mormon 6:22)
    • “But justice cannot always be strictly enforced, and then equity and mercy have to be substituted” (The Dialogues of Plato, Laws: Preamble, Book VI)
    • Mercy, remember, is by many set above justice” (Herodotus, Book III)
  • the justice of our cause / the justice of the cause (Alma 46:29)
    • “but Aristobulus’s three hundred talents had more weight with him than the justice of the cause” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 6:3)
  • the spirit of freedom / the spirit of freedom (Alma 61:15)
    • “Such was the natural nobility of this city, so sound and healthy was the spirit of freedom among us” (Plato, Dialogues, Menexenus)
    • “trusting less in system and policy than to the native spirit of our citizens” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI)
    • “Nay, indeed, Lysias observing the great spirit of the Jews, how they were prepared to die rather than lose their liberty” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 7:5)
  • look up to Heaven /look up to God (Alma 5:19)
    • “Thou art not ignorant, O Lord, that it is beyond human strength and human contrivance to avoid the difficulties we are now under…if there be any method that can promise us an escape by thy providence, we look up to thee for it” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book II, 16:1)
  • suffer yourselves to be chained down by your enemies / suffer yourselves to be slain by the hands of your enemies (Alma 43:46)
    • “to suffer yourselves to be equally terrified at the invasion of men is unmanly” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 19:4)
    • “moreover, when you were brought under the hands of your enemies, he delivered you” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 5:6)
    • “and having, as they considered, suffered evil at the hands of the Plataeans” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter X)
    • “I think thou art not ignorant of what he did to thee, nor of what I suffered at his hands” (Herodotus, Book I)
    • “when about to suffer death at the hands of his parents” (The Dialogues of Plato, Laws, Book IX)
  • freemen / freemen (Alma 61:4)
    • “he also left some of the horsemen, called the Freemen, with Herod” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 13:3)
    • “killing all the freemen that fell into their hands” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XVI)
    • “if they be looked upon as freemen” (Herodotus, Book 4)
  • future generations / future generations (2 Nephi 4:2)
    • “to be a witness to future generations of what he had foretold” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VI, 4:6)
    • “to leave behind thee to all future generations a memory beyond even Harmodius and Aristogeiton” (Herodotus, Book VI)
  • dissensions / dissensions (Alma 53:9)
    • “the affairs of the Jews became very tumultuous; as also how the tyrants rose up against them, and fell into dissensions among themselves” (Josephus, Wars, Preface, 9)
  • whilst the mangled corpses of our countrymen seem to cry out to us as a voice from heaven / because of the blood of them who have been slain; for they cry from the dust (Ether 8:24)
    • “And he said, What hast thou done, the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto me from the ground” (Bible, Genesis 4:10)
    • “the vengeance of the blood of my kinsman pursues me hastily” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 3:6)
  • the blood of their brethren / the blood of their brethren (Mosiah 11:19)
    • “he is not restrained from shedding the blood of kinsmen” (The Dialogues of Plato, Republic, Book VIII)
    • “the vengeance of the blood of my kinsman pursues me hastily” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 3:6)

 

Donofrio cites parallels in Thomas Jefferson’s first inaugural address given on March 4, 1801:

  • the rich productions of their industry / riches…they had obtained by their industry (Alma 4:6) / acquired much riches by the hand of my industry (Alma 10:4)
    • “Anthemion, who acquired his wealth, not by accident or gift…but by his own skill and industry” (The Dialogues of Plato, Meno)
    • “our ordinary citizens, though occupied with the pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI)
  • to steer with safety the vessel in which we are all embarked amidst the conflicting elements of a troubled world / they are led about by Satan…as a vessel is tossed about upon the waves, without sail or anchor, or without anything wherewith to steer her (Mormon 5:18)
    • “so that they were very like to a ship in a storm, which is tossed by the waves on both sides” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XII, 3:3)
  • by the voice of the nation / by the voice of the people (Mosiah 29:26)
    • “Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee” (Bible, 1 Samuel 8:7)
    • “Dorotheus the high priest, and the fellow presidents with him, put it to the vote of the people” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XIV, 8:5)
    • “chosen by the common voice of the Ionians” (Herodotus, Book 1)
  • all will, of course, arrange themselves under the will of the law, and unite / according to our law, and we will newly arrange the affairs of this people (Mosiah 29:11)
    • “still at a very early period obtained good laws, and enjoyed a freedom from tyrants which was unbroken; it has possessed the same form of government for more than four hundred years, reckoning to the end of the late war, and has thus been in a position to arrange the affairs of the other states” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter I)
  • in common efforts for the common good the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail / Now it is not common that the voice of the people desireth anything contrary to that which is right; but it is common for the lesser part of the people to desire that which is not right; therefore this shall ye observe and make it your law – to do your business by the voice of the people (Mosiah 29:26)
    • “for we are made for fellowship one with another, and he who prefers the common good before what is peculiar to himself is above all acceptable to God’ (Josephus, Against Apion, Book II, 24)
    • “Or, if such virtue is scarcely attainable by the multitude, we need only suppose that the majority are good men and good citizens, and ask which will be the more incorruptible, the one good ruler, or the many who are all good?” (Aristotle, Politics, Part XV)
    • “it had been expressly agreed that the decision of the majority of the allies should be binding, unless the gods or heroes stood in the way” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XVI)
  • their equal rights / every man should have an equal chance (Mosiah 29:38)
    • “Our city at that juncture had neither an oligarchical constitution in which all the nobles enjoyed equal rights, nor a democracy” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter X)
    • “Now therefore, since he has fulfilled his destiny, I lay down my office, and proclaim equal rights” (Herodotus, Book III)
  • equal law / they were all equal (Alma 1:26)
    • “when he came to the throne he divided the empire into seven provinces; and he made equal laws, and implanted friendship among the people” (The Dialogues of Plato, The Laws: Preamble, Book III)
    • “as a reward for such their assistance, gave them equal privileges in this city with the Grecians themselves” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 18:7)
    • “If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI)
  • Let us, then, fellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one mind / be determined in one mind and in one heart, united in all things (2 Nephi 1:21)
    • “but, above all things, let us be of one mind, and let us honor God” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book III, 14:1)
    • “And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul” (Bible, Acts 4:32)
  • Or have we found angels in the form of kings to govern / if it were possible that ye could always have just men to be your kings (Mosiah 23:8)
    • “the rule of one is neither good nor pleasant. Ye cannot have forgotten to what lengths Cambyses went in his haughty tyranny…How indeed is it possible that monarchy should be a well-adjusted thing, when it allows a man to do as he likes without being answerable? Such license is enough to stir strange and unwonted thoughts in the heart of the worthiest men” (Herodotus, Book III)
    • “take these three forms of government- democracy, oligarchy, and monarch- and let them each be at their best, I maintain that monarchy far surpasses the other two. What government can possibly be better than that of the very best man in the whole state?” (Herodotus, Book III)
  • Providence…delights in the happiness of man here and his greater happiness hereafter / men are that they might have joy (2 Nephi 2:25)
    • “when he further asked them how they could be so joyful when they were to be put to death, they replied, because they should enjoy greater happiness after they were dead” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 33:3)
    • “O children of Israel! There is but one source of happiness for all mankind, the favor of God, for he alone is able to give good things to those that deserve them” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book IV, 8:2)
    • “the soul was immortal, and that an eternal enjoyment of happiness did await such as died on that account” (Josephus, Wars, Book I, 33:2)

 

Donofrio identifies parallels found in Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” (1776):

  • But where, say some, is the King of America? I’ll tell you, friend, he reigns above this land / shall be a land of liberty unto the Gentiles, and there shall be no kings upon the land (2 Nephi 10:11) / for I, the Lord, the king of heaven, will be their king (2 Nephi 10:14)
    • “the performance whereof with thine own mouth thou has vowed to the King of heaven” (Apocrypha, 1 Esdras, 4:46)
    • “And when ye saw that Nahash the king of the children of Ammon came against you, ye said unto me, Nay; but a king shall reign over us: when the Lord your God was your king” (Bible, 1 Samuel 12:12)
    • “And Gideon said unto them, I will not rule over you, neither shall my son rule over you: the Lord shall rule over you” (Bible, Judges 8:23)
  • There are injuries which nature cannot forgive; she would cease to be nature if she did / Now the work of justice could not be destroyed; if so, God would cease to be God (Alma 42:13)
    • The city which has no courts of law will soon cease to be a city” (The Dialogues of Plato, The Laws: Preamble, Book VI)
    • “neither the grammarian nor any other person of skill ever makes a mistake in so far as he is what his name implies; they none of them err unless their skill fails them, and then they cease to be skilled artists” (The Dialogues of Plato, Republic, Book I)
  • the Almighty hath implanted in us / planted in your heart (Alma 32:38)
    • “Jacob made his defense – That he was not the only person in whom God had implanted the love of his native country, but that he had made it natural to all men” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book I, 19:10)
    • “when pleasure, and friendship, and pain, and hatred, are rightly implanted in souls not yet capable of understanding the nature of them” (Plato, Dialogues, Laws, Book II)
  • his Image in our hearts / his image in your countenances (Alma 5:4)
  • The robber and the murderer / robbers and murderers (Helaman 6:18)
    • “their inclination to plunder was insatiable, as was their zeal in searching the houses of the rich; and for the murdering of the men” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 9:10)
    • “there sprang up another sort of robbers in Jerusalem, which were called Sicarii, who slew men in the day time…and when any fell down dead, the murderers became a part of those that had indignation against them” (Josephus, Wars, Book II, 13:3)
    • “every one was in indignation at these men’s seizing upon the sanctuary, at their rapine and murders” (Josephus, Wars, Book IV, 3:10)
  • in one and some in another / in one and some in another (Jacob 5:4)
    • “A man ought to know which of these pay better than others, and which pay best in particular places, for some do better in one place and some in another” (Aristotle, Politics, Part XI)
    • “for the soil and the population may be separated, and some of the inhabitants may live in one place and some in another” (Aristotle, Politics, Part III)
    • “No remedy was found that could be used as a specific; for what did good in one case, did harm in another” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VII)
    • “be willing to help us secretly if not openly, in one way if not in another” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XIX)
  • plunderers / plunderers (Helaman 6:18)
    • “There might be some truth in such a view if we assume that robbers and plunderers attain the chief good” (Aristotle, Politics, Part III)
  • setting the world at defiance / set at defiance (Alma 5:18)

 

Donofrio identifies parallels found between a published sermon by Isaac Backus in 1773:

  • no tongue nor pen can fully describe / it is impossible for the tongue to describe, or for man to write (Mormon 4:11)
    • Now it is impossible to describe the multitude of the shows as they deserve, and the magnificence of them all “(Josephus, Wars, Book VII, 5:5)
    • “I saw the back-bones and ribs of serpents in such numbers as it is impossible to describe” (Herodotus, Book II)

 

Donofrio identifies a parallel in a letter sent by Jonas Phillips to the Constitutional Convention, (1787):

  • to come into a Land of Liberty / “…land of liberty (Alma 46:17)
    • “What is more, you will enslave the land in which the freedom of the Hellenes was won” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter X)
    • “so deeply am I troubled at the slavery our once free country is now under” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book XIX, 1:9)

These examples show that most of these parallels can be found in other contemporary translations of ancient documents. It should be noted that this article does not represent an exhaustive review of the available literature. These works were simply selected based on my previous knowledge. Part 3 of this article will deal with parallels found in Josephus and the Book of Mormon but not found in the Bible or the Donofrio’s list of parallels. This will show the limitations of attempting to prove the Book of Mormon is a work of fiction because of its parallels to 19th century literature.

 

Debunking the Connection between “The First Book of Napoleon” and The Book of Mormon

Some critics argue that Joseph Smith received inspiration for the Book of Mormon from several books that were written to mimic the language of the KJV Bible. One of these books is “The First Book of Napoleon, the Tyrant of the Earth” (1809) written by Michael Linning under the name “Eliakim.” The First Book of Napoleon tells the story of the rise of Napoleon and the author warns its readers to beware of tyrants and wickedness. The differences between the Book of Mormon and the First Book of Napoleon, however, are so vast that any of the small number of similarities that exist can be linked to the fact that they both try to imitate King James English in the Bible. In short, there is nothing unique in the First Book of Napoleon to suggest it served as source material for the Book of Mormon. A digital version of the First Book of Napoleon can be found online here.

Fair Mormon has a small section devoted to the First Book of Napoleon, which can be found here. The purpose of my article is to go into greater detail on the similarities and differences between the Book of Mormon and the First Book of Napoleon.

The Story

The story in the First Book of Napoleon has little in common with the Book of Mormon. The First Book of Napoleon is a historical narrative about the rise of Napoleon and a prophetic warning against those who would be his allies. The table of contents on pages iii – viii provide a summary of each of the book’s chapters and shows that the overall narrative is nothing like the Book of Mormon. An evil spirit influences the people of the Gauls who worship a wicked idol. Napoleon takes over their armies, becomes their new idol, and begins expanding his empire. The people of Albanus and king Albion fight against Napoleon’s expanding empire. Eliakim sees visions and tells the readers to live righteously and resist the tyrant Napoleon. There is a parable of the Bear and the Monkey (p. 100), an oak tree symbolically claims it is superior to all the other trees of the land (p. 72), the people worship a horned idol with the words “Sedition, Privy Conspiracy, and Rebellion” written on its horns (p. 12), the author suggests that royals and noblemen are superior to their subjects (pp. 11-12), and the State is likened to a ship tossed upon the storms of wickedness (p. 90).

The Book of Mormon describes a family who flees Jerusalem in 600 B.C. with a sacred religious text, who build a ship to travel to the American continent. The book describes the organization of their government, their wars, their prophecies of Christ, a visit by the resurrected Jesus Christ, and the destruction of their civilization. While both the Book of Mormon and the First Book of Napoleon deal with themes of evil tyrants, righteous kings, and wicked peoples, these themes are also found extensively throughout the Bible and presumably thousands of other books. There is no reason to believe that the First Book of Napoleon provided any unique story beats for the Book of Mormon.

Debunking the Supposed Similarities

There are several similarities between the two works, but a closer examination shows that most of these similarities can be traced back to the Bible.

Similarity #1: Using Trees in Allegories

The first similarity is that both the Book of Mormon (Jacob 5) and the First Book of Napoleon (Chapter 2) use trees in allegories. This is where the similarity ends. The fifth chapter in the Book of Jacob recounts a 77-verse allegory of how the House of Israel is like a decaying olive tree. The Lord of the vineyard tries to preserve the natural olives by transplanting some of its branches into other parts of the vineyard, while at the same time grafting branches from wild olive trees into the original tree. The Lord’s several attempts to preserve the tree are described. The purpose of the allegory is to show the history of the scattering of Israel and how Israel will be gathered together again in the last days. This allegory utilizes language similar to Luke 13:6-9, Romans 11:16-24, and Isaiah 5:1-7. An in-depth look at the similarities in the language of Jacob 5 and the Bible can be found here.

The First Book of Napoleon, on the other hand, provides a 9 verse allegory comparing laws or state constitutions to trees in that they should “be trained and pruned by the wary hand of age and time” (p. 16) instead of being built like a human structure (Napoleon 2:7-15, p. 15-18). The “constitution of the state” (p. 16) grows in good soil and decays in bad soil.  The tree is nourished by the “dew of heaven, and the sun-beams thereof…and the blood of the warriors” (p. 16). The tree that the Gauls plant after they overthrew their rulers brings forth “bad and forbidden fruit” (p. 17). The branches decay and those who eat its fruit die bloody deaths “because the sap which was in the tree, was poison” (p. 17). While this allegory and the Book of Mormon share some similarities in using words to describe the tree such as “decayed,” “pruned,” “corruption,” “good soils” and “bad soil,” there is no mention of olive trees, grafting, digging, dunging, the Lord of the Vineyard or his servant, the House of Israel, and wild and natural trees, which are featured in prominent sections of the Bible. Since the Bible already provides material that is more consistent with the language and message of the Book of Mormon, there is no reason to believe that Joseph was influenced by the First Book of Napoleon to write Jacob 5.

Similarity #2: Vision of the Angel

Lehi and Nephi have visions in which they are lifted up by an angel and prophesy. Eliakim also describes a vision in which he is guided by an angel. Eliakim has a vision in which an “angel lifted [him] up between the earth and the heavens…and put me on an high place” (Napoleon 17:3; similar language is found in Ezekiel 8:3). He sees Napoleon sitting on a throne, surrounded by his armies, and he becomes a dragon who wreaks havoc on the earth. He then sees a beautiful island where a shepherd watches his herds (symbolic of the Albions). There is a mighty bull that protects the island from the dragon.

In the Book of Mormon, Lehi (1 Nephi 8) and Nephi (1 Nephi 11-14) are also taken away by angels unto “an exceedingly high mountain” (1 Nephi 11:1). Lehi sees a vision of the tree of life and a rod of iron leading to it. Nephi sees the same vision, and sees the coming of the Savior, the destruction of his people, and the end of the days. A cursory reading of the visions in the First Book of Napoleon and the Book of Mormon show they have very different content. What is most important, however, is that heavenly visions where a prophet is guided by an angel are found in many instances in the Bible, such as Revelation 21:10, Jeremiah 1 and 24, and Ezekiel 3 and 8. An analysis of some of the common motifs found in the Book of Mormon and the Bible in Lehi’s and Nephi’s visions can be found here. This analysis, in conjunction with a reading of Eliakim’s visions, shows that the Book of Mormon visions have much more in common with Biblical visions than they do with the First Book of Napoleon. There is therefore no basis for believing that the First Book of Napoleon significantly contributed to this part of the Book of Mormon’s content.

Similarity #3: Language

The Book of Mormon and the First Book of Napoleon share many similar phrases. Most of these phrases, however, are found in the Bible. Since both books use the Bible for inspiration (the Nephites had the five books of Moses and the teachings of Jesus, and Linning wrote his book specifically to imitate the KJV Bible), it is expected that there would be similarities between the two (click this link for a list of Biblical phrases and motifs found in the Book of Mormon).

Here is a sample of some of the phrases found in all three works:

  • “The latter days” = (Napoleon 1:1)/(Jeremiah 48:47)/(2 Nephi 3:5)
  • “The fear of the Lord” = (Napoleon 1:3)/(Proverbs 2:5)/(Mosiah 4:1)
  • “Imaginations of their hearts” = (Napoleon 1:3)/(Jeremiah 3:17)/(1 Nephi 2:11)
  • “Evil spirit” = (Napoleon 1:6)/(Luke 8:2)/(Mosiah 2:32)
  • “Kings and rulers” = (Napoleon 1:7)/(1 Nephi 16:38)/(Mark 13:9)
  • “True and living God” = (Napoleon 1:10)/(Jeremiah 10:10)/(Alma 11:27)
  • “Great and marvelous” = (Napoleon 3:2)/(Revelation 15:3)/(1 Nephi 1:14)
  • “Blotted [out their names]” = (Napoleon 11:2)/(Deuteronomy 9:14)/(Mosiah 5:11)
  • “Deliver into your hands” = (Napoleon 8:6)/(1 Chronicles 14:10)/(1 Nephi 3:29)
  • “Fight like/Bold as lions” = (Napoleon 7:6)/(1 Chronicles 12:8)/(Psalm 17:12)/(Mosiah 20:10)
  • “Gall and/of bitterness” = (Napoleon 6:13)/(Acts 8:23)/(Moroni 8:14)
  • Disappear as the dew [vapor] before the sun = (Napoleon 10:15)/(Hosea 6:4)/(Mormon 4:18)
  • “Chaff before the wind” = (Napoleon 10:14)/(Psalms 1:4)/(Mormon 5:16)
  • “Great and terrible” = (Napoleon 19:12)/(Deuteronomy 1:19)/(1 Nephi 12:18)
  • “He dreamed a dream” = (Napoleon 16:14)/(Daniel 2:3) (1 Nephi 8:2)
  • “Rod of iron” = (Napoleon 20:9)/(Revelation 2:26-27)/(1 Nephi 8:19)
  • Wearing modest, non-expensive clothing = (Napoleon 22:11)/(1 Timothy 2:9)/(Alma 1:27)
  • “Gray hairs with sorrow to the grave” = (Napoleon 20:27)/(Genesis 42:38)/(1 Nephi 18:18)

Since a majority of the phrases found in the First Book of Napoleon and the Book of Mormon are also found in the Bible, there is no reason to believe that the First Book of Napoleon was a significant influence.

There are more Differences than Similarities

Even though the First Book of Napoleon and the Book of Mormon both try to mimic KJV language, there are in fact vast differences in style and vocabulary between the two books. The following is a list of verses that show just how far Linning’s style deviates from the Book of Mormon:

  • “So the bear allowed the monkey from time to time to play and frisk around him; but it came to pass, that the monkey having scratched the bear, he thereupon raised his bristles, and threatened to hug the monkey to death” (Napoleon 16:9)
  • “A tyrant’s fiat had excluded him from the sweet society of men, and from the cheering light of the sun, and had doomed him to become a prey to corruption, and the reptiles of the earth!” (Napoleon 18:22)
  • “Frozen seas and rivers, and plains covered with eternal frost, are unto him as dwelling places; and the storm which chilleth other beasts, even unto death, beateth upon him as upon a rock, which is covered with furs and with skins.” (Napoleon 16:4)
  • “And out of the head of the beast there arose three horns, and upon each of the horns there were written these words, Sedition, Privy, Conspiracy, and Rebellion; and on the forehead of the beast, and under the horns, there were written, in letters of blood, the words Treasons and Crimes” (Napoleon 1:12)
  • “His nightly path is lighted by fiery spectres, that sport and dance along the polar sky, and play amidst the wintry star” (Napoleon 16:5)
  • “And lo! the tillers of the ground, and the labourers thereof, together with mechanics, artificers, and all manner of handicraftmen, left their sundry and peaceful occupations, and became lawmakers and lawgivers, and sought to rule over their superiors” (Napoleon 2:6)
  • “But, alas! In this glorious, but direful battle, there fell many valiant men, and in the midst of them, covered with glory, and crowned with victory, their brave and skillful chief, whose name now stands high in the temple of Fame” (Napoleon 9:29)
  • “As the dew of heaven, and the sun-beams thereof, water and cherish the earthly tree, so also, do the spirits of the departed patriots of a land, and the blood of the warriors thereof, foster and support the political tree, or constitution of the state” (Napoleon 2:9)
  • “And from each of these four great branches, there issue others, and the fruit which is produced by the tree is emblematical of religion, nobleness of birth and deed, freedom, obedience to the laws, security, wealth, and happiness” (Napoleon 5:25)
  • “That the radiant and resplendent brilliancy of their great souls, may serve as a light or beacon, to direct the counsels and actions of those, who now, or in time coming, may be placed at the helm of the state” (Napoleon 10:8)
  • “May not the eternal solidity of the inconceivable empire of Almighty god, and the unchangeable harmony and obedience which pervade all his wondrous works, derive as much strength from the universal adoration in which his unerring truth, his immaculate purity and holiness, and his inflexible justice are held, by created existence, as from the immensity and grandeur of his unmeasurable power?” (Napoleon 12:17)
  • “The sun, who came forth in the morning like a bridegroom from his eastern chamber, arrayed in all his dazzling glories, to cheer and enlighten a benighted world, to dissipate the dreary darkness of the night, and awaken drowsy nature to joy and gladness; found this generation of bats and of owls, male and female, reveling in all manner of riot and licentiousness” (Napoleon 13:7)
  • “What, O man, O guilty man, who thus insultest the orderly appointments of heaven, what would not thy consternation be, were the sun to loiter on his eastern couch, and the return of morning to be withheld but for a little while beyond its appointed time, and thus to leave the world to utter darkness and dismay?” (Napoleon 13:13)
  • “Lo! many of the nations thou now seest suffering under the dragon, were worshippers of the first idol, which is called Licentiousness; and until they shall by repentance and amendment of life, have expiated the crimes which they thereby committed, the sun of liberty which thou observedst to be nearly darkened in blood, shall not rise upon them, nor until then, shall their bonds be broken asunder” (Napoleon 18:26)

Similarity #4: Condemn me not for my imperfections

Critics point out that both the Book of Mormon and the First Book of Napoleon contain prefaces that ask their readers to not condemn them for their poor writing. In Eliakim’s “Address to His Readers,” he gives a short message to several types of readers, such as the “Charitable and Gentle Reader,” “the Pious and Religious Reader,” “Readers in General,” “Napoleon,” and the “King of the Albions.” In his address to the “Pious and Religious Reader” he tells his readers “let not thy feelings be offended, and withhold thy censure, until thou shalt find in these pages a single sentiment inconsistent with the spirit and principles of that holy religion which thou professest; and condemn not the feebly imitative manner of writing therein occasionally employed, until thou canst point out a language more impressive, or more appropriate, than that in imitation whereof these chapters are framed” (p. i). In other words, he asks those who are familiar with the Bible to not criticize him too harshly in his attempts to mimic the KJV Bible.

The title page of the Book of Mormon has a similar disclaimer in which Mormon states “And now, if there are faults they are the mistakes of men; wherefore, condemn not the things of God, that ye may be found spotless at the judgment-seat of Christ” (p. iii). Moroni provides a similar disclaimer in Ether 12:23-27. It may seem like a shocking coincidence that both books, imitating KJV English and published only 20 years apart, would contain such similar pleas from the authors in the preface of their books. The problem with this argument is that such disclaimers are in fact very common in literature before Joseph’s day and well afterwards.

For example, Victor Hugo in his preface to “Cromwell” (1827) criticizes certain poetic styles and points out that it is not the style they used that should be condemned, but the limitations of the authors in employing them: “They were mistaken. If in fact the false is predominant in the style as well as in the action of certain French tragedies, it is not the verses that should be held responsible therefore, but the versifiers. It was needful to condemn, not the form employed, but those who employed it: the workmen, not the tool.

Another example is John Dryden’s preface to “Fables, Ancient and Modern” (1700), where he asks the reader not to condemn him for adding his own inferior fables to the volume, but instead blame his poor judgment on his old age: “I resolv’d to join them in my present work; to which I have added some original papers of my own; which, whether they are equal or inferior to my other poems, an author is the most improper judge, and therefore I leave them wholly to the mercy of the reader. I will hope the best, that they will not be condem’d; but if they should, I have the excuse of an old gentleman, who mounting on horseback before some ladies, when I was present, got up somewhat heavily, but desir’d of the fair spectators that they would count fourscore and eight before they judg’d him.

Asking readers to attribute any errors in their work to their own human limitations is so common in academic writing that philosophers have argued over what D. C. Makinson called “The Paradox of the Preface” (Analysis, Vol. 25, No. 6, 1965, pp. 205-207), where he states “It is customary for authors of academic books to include in their prefaces statements such as this: ‘I am indebted to…for their invaluable help; however, any errors which remain are my sole responsibility.’ Occasionally an author will go further. Rather than say that if there are any mistakes then he is responsible for them, he will say that there will inevitably be some mistakes and he is responsible for them. For example, in the preface to his ‘Introduction to the Foundations of Mathematics’ (1952) R. L. Wilder writes ‘To those of my colleagues and students who have given me encouragement and stimulation, I wish to express sincere thanks. I am especially grateful to…for suggestions and criticism; but the errors and shortcomings to be found herein are not their fault, and are present only in spite of their wise counsel” (p. 205)

It is unreasonable to argue that all of these authors first needed to read the First Book of Napoleon before they could write such prefaces, and the same standard should be applied to Joseph Smith. All of the arguments I have made suggest that there is little to no evidence in favor of the argument that the First Book of Napoleon served as inspiration for the Book of Mormon.

An Answer to the Vernal Holley Map Theory

Vernal Holley made the argument that the geography described in the Book of Mormon is strikingly similar to geography and place names of the Great Lakes region of the United States. He therefore concludes that the Book of Mormon is a 19th century work based on the author’s personal experience. For reference, the Holley map can be found here. This argument has since been regurgitated by Jeremy Runnells, who compiled his somewhat well-known “Letter to a CES Director” where he concludes the argument by saying “Why are there so many names similar to Book of Mormon names in the region where Joseph Smith lived? This is all just a coincidence?” (It should be noted that Runnells has removed many names from Holley’s original list such as “St. Agathe/Ogath,” “Conner/Comnor,” and “St. Ephrem/Hill Ephraim” because there is demonstrable proof that they were founded well after the Book of Mormon was published).

FairMormon, Daniel Peterson, and Wheat & Tares have all provided thorough rebuttals  to this theory. Peterson rightly concludes that the theory “has been exploded, detonated so many times that it’s exasperating to see it keep coming back.” FairMormon does a very good job debunking this theory by pointing out that many of the locations identified by Holley do not match what is described in the Book of Mormon. For example, Holley places the Nephite city of “Morianton” (which is supposed to be similar to “Moravian Town”) on the west side of the map, when it is described as being near the eastern seashore (Alma 51:26). In addition, Holley places the Nephite city “Jacobugath” (which is supposed to be similar to “Jacobsburg”) in the land south when the Book of Mormon clearly places it in the land northward (3 Nephi 7:12).

From what I can tell, however, none of the apologists answer the question “Why are there so many similar names between the Great Lakes region and the Book of Mormon?” This is an easy question to answer. First, it is important to know that many of the names mentioned on Holley’s list are names found in the Bible. The Book of Mormon tells the story of Hebrew people coming to the Americas and basing their society on Biblical writings. It should not surprise anyone that a 500-600 mile region of the eastern United States founded by Protestants would share some Biblical place names. For example, the fact that Jordan, Jerusalem, Noah, Midian, and Boaz are the names of locations in both the Book of Mormon and the eastern United States is not miraculous.

In addition, just because names sound similar doesn’t mean that they are similar, especially since most of the Book of Mormon names on the list have roots in the Bible. I have made a list refuting some of the supposedly similar place names identified by Holley by providing an explanation of their possible Biblical origins.

  1. Moravian Town = Morianton (Alma 51:26)
  • These names look sort of similar (even though Holley placed it in the wrong location). The name “Morianton,” however, clearly has its roots in names in the Bible such as “Moriah” (2 Chronicles 3:1) and names with the ending “-ton” such as “Eshton” (1 Chronicles 4:12), which is a much stronger correlation than “Moravian Town.” In addition, there are Book of Mormon names similar to Morianton such as “Corianton” (Alma 39) and “Gadianton” (4 Nephi 1:42). I doubt Joseph Smith based these names on cities named “Coravian Town” and “Gadavian Town.”

2. Shiloh = Shilom (Mosiah 10:8)

  • First off, Shiloh is a name found frequently in the Bible (Judges 21:12). In addition, the Bible has many derivations of the name Shiloh such as “Shelomith” (1 Chronicles 26:28), “Shallum” (Ezra 7:2), “Shiloni” (Nehemiah 11:5), “Shelemiah” (Nehemiah 3:30), and “Shillem” (Numbers 26:49). “Shilom” looks like a perfectly suitable derivation of a Biblical name.

3. Jacobsburg = Jacobugath (3 Nephi 9:9)

  • Other than the fact that “Jacobsburg” on Holley’s map isn’t anywhere near where the Book of Mormon describes “Jacobugath,” these names do sound similar. However, the name Jacobugath has more in common with the Bible than it does with the name Jacobsburg. It is likely a combination of the Biblical names “Jacob” (Genesis 29:1)–who founded the city–and “Gath” (2 Chronicles 11:8); not a creative derivation of Jacobsburg.

4. Sherbrooke = Shurr (Ether 14:28)

  • Like so many of the names on Holley’s list, “Shur” is a name found in the Bible (1 Samuel 15:7) and is much more similar to “Shurr” than Sherbrooke. I doubt Joseph Smith or Solomon Spaulding saw the name Sherbrooke and decided to derive the name “Shurr” instead of simply using the Bible as its source.

5. Hellam = Helam (Mosiah 23:19)

  • Once again, “Helam” (2 Samuel 10:16) is a name found in the Bible and the Book of Mormon contains its original spelling. There would be no reason to use the town of “Hellam” as a source for the location.

6. Rama = Ramah (Ether 15:11) 

  • “Ramah” (1 Kings 15:17) is found many times in the Bible, and the Book of Mormon contains the correct spelling.

7. Ripple Lake = Waters of Ripliancum (Ether 15:8)

  • This might be a compelling similarity if “Ripliancum” didn’t have roots in the Bible and other Book of Mormon names. For example, the name “Riplah” (Alma 43:31) is a name found in the Book of Mormon, which contains the suspect letters “Ripl” which sounds like “Ripple.” Was this name also based on “Ripple Lake?” No, because it is a variation on the Biblical name “Riblah” (Numbers 34:11). Another name in the Book of Mormon is “Riplakish” (Ether 10:4), which is a combination of “Riplah” and “Kish” (1 Samuel 14:51) or “Riphath” (1 Chronicles 1:6) and “Lachish” (Joshua 10:3). Ripliancum makes more sense as a derivation of “Riblah” and the Book of Mormon names “Moriancumer” (Ether 2:13) or “Teancum” (Alma 52:1) rather than a mindless variation on “Ripple Lake.”

8. Minoa = Minon (Alma 2:24)

  • This is an obscure comparison considering the land of “Minon” is only named once in the Book of Mormon. “Minon” is likely a derivation of “Pinon” (1 Chronicles 1:52), or “Minnith” (Ezekiel 26:17) and any other of the hundreds of Biblical names that end in “-on” such as “Maon” (1 Chronicles 2:45). “Manoah” (Judges 13:2) is also a Biblical name which sounds more similar to “Minoa” than does “Minon.”

9. Monroe = Moroni (Moroni 1:1)

  • This similarity Holley identifies is quite a stretch. To me, it makes much more sense to see how the name “Moroni” has its roots in Biblical names such as “Moriah” (2 Chronicles 3:1) or “Beth-horon” (Joshua 16:3), and names like “Hachmoni” (1 Chronicles 27:32), “Shiloni” (Nehemiah 11:5), and “Gideoni” (Numbers 10:24).

10. Lehigh = Lehi (1 Nephi 1:5)

  • The actual name “Lehi” is found in the Bible (Judges 15:14).

11. Tecumseh/Tenecum = Teancum (Alma 52:1)

  • In my opinion, Teancum is one of the more difficult names in the Book of Mormon for which to identify a Biblical correlate, only second to the name “Gimgimno” (3 Nephi 9:8). It seems, however, that Teancum may have some relation to the Biblical name “Teman” (Genesis 36:11) and any of the other Book of Mormon names with the letters “c-u-m” such as “Ripliancum,” “Moriancumer,” “Cumorah,” or “Cumeni” [which seems to be a derivation of names like “Cush” (1 Chronicles 1:8) and “Temeni” (1 Chronicles 4:6)].

12. Antioch = Ani-Anti (Alma 21:11)   

  • “Antioch” is a name found frequently in the New Testament (Acts 11:19). To suggest that “Ani-Anti” was based off of a location named “Antioch” in the Great Lakes region falls apart when considering the root “Anti” is used in other Biblical names (see “Antipas” in Revelation 2:13) and many times in the Book of Mormon for locations such as “Antionum” (Alma 31:3), city of Antiparah” (Alma 57:1), “mount Antipas” (Alma 47:7), the “city of Manti” (Alma 58:1), and for character names such as “Antionah” (Alma 12:20), “Anti-Nephi-Lehi” (Alma 27:2) and “Antipus” (Alma 56:9). An “antion” (Alma 11:19) is also a Nephite monetary measurement. The “Mantua = Manti” connection is also explained with this line of reasoning.

13. Morin = Moron (Ether 7:5)

  • Both of these names are similar to Biblical names such as “Beth-horon” (Joshua 16:3) “Merom” (Joshua 11:5), and “Shimron-meron” (Joshua 12:20). There is nothing special about these two names being similar that can’t be explained by appealing to the Bible.

14. Sodom = Sidom (Alma 15:1)

  • Both “Sodom” (Genesis 19:1/2 Nephi 23:19) and “Sidon” (Genesis 10:15/Alma 43:22) are found in the Bible and Book of Mormon. The fact that there is a place in the Book of Mormon called “Sidom,” which looks like a combination of both of these names, should not be surprising to anyone.

15. Kishkiminetas = Kishkumen (Helaman 2:3)

  • “Kish” is a name found many times in the Bible (1 Samuel 9:1). “Kishkumen” is most likely a combination of the name “Kish” and Book of Mormon names such as “Kumen,” “Kumenonhi,” (3 Nephi 19:4), or “Cumeni” (Alma 57:7) [a derivation of names like “Cush” (1 Chronicles 1:8) and “Temeni” (1 Chronicles 4:6)].

16. St. Agathe = Ogath (Ether 15:10)

  • Even though “St. Agathe” wasn’t founded until after the Book of Mormon was published, I thought I would go ahead and talk about it anyway. The name “Ogath” is most likely a combination of the name “Gath” (2 Chronicles 11:8) and similar sounding names like “Oboth” (Numbers 33:43).

17. Oneida = Onidah (Alma 47:5)

  • The name “Onidah” has its “oni” roots in names like “Hachmoni” (1 Chronicles 27:32), “Shiloni” (Nehemiah 11:5), and “Gideoni” (Numbers 10:24), while it has its “dah” roots in names like “Adah” (Genesis 36:2). The Book of Mormon also contains the city “Onihah” (3 Nephi 9:7).

18. Antrim = Antum (Mormon 1:3)

  • “Antum” is derived from Book of Mormon names like “Coriantumr” (Ether 14:3), “Irreantum” (1 Nephi 17:5), “Seantum” (Helaman 9:26), and “Moriantum” (Moroni 9:9). It is not very plausible that Joseph Smith heard the name “Antrim,” changed it to “Antum,” and then used it as a root word for other location/character names as well. See the commentary on “Antioch = Ani-Anti” as well.

19. Comoros = Cumorah (Mormon 6:2)

  • While not on Vernal Holley’s list, Runnells argues that it is an impossible coincidence that there is an island nation off the coast of Mozambique called “Comoros” “Comore,” “Comorra,” or “Camora” (depending on who you ask) and had a settlement called “Moroni” or “Meroni” which today is its capital city. Cumorah, however, has its roots in the Bible, sounding similar to “Gomorrah” (Genesis 14:2) or “Deborah” (Judges 4:4) with the inserted letters “cu” much like other Book of Mormon names such as “Ripliancum,” “Teancum,” and “Cumeni.” The potential origin of the name Moroni has already been discussed.

Conclusion

After seeing these comparisons, what we are left with is a map of the eastern United States that has some names that sound a little similar to very obscure Book of Mormon locations (that are in the wrong place) that share more in common with the Bible than the eastern U.S. It is not difficult to find similarities in names if one looks hard enough. If Joseph Smith lived in southern California, critics would argue that “Riverside” sounds like the “River Sidon,” that “Tonner Canyon” sounds like “Teomner,” that “Monrovia” sounds like “Moronihah,” that “Moreno Street” look like “Moroni,” and that “Corona” sounds like “Cumorah” (not to mention I drove in my Toyota “Tacoma” which sounds like “Teancum”).

Comparing Motifs and Phrases in Alma 5 to the Bible

The following is a list of some of the motifs and phrases in Alma 5 that are found in the Bible. Some of these references are found in the LDS Topical Guide, but many are not. There are also many more Biblical references found in Alma 5 that are not included in this list. The number of specific references in Alma 5 to scriptures found across the Old and New Testament suggest that the author(s) of the Book of Mormon had an intimate knowledge of scriptural language beyond simply trying to mimic the KJV style of language.


1. “having been consecrated by my father, Alma, to be a high priest” (Alma 5:3)
“consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest’s office” (Exodus 28:41)
2. “he having power and authority from God” (Alma 5:3)
“with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits” (Luke 4:36)
3. “by the power of his word” (Alma 5:5)
“upholding all things by the word of his power” (Hebrews 1:3)
4. “he awakened them out of a deep sleep” (Alma 5:7)
“Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead” (Ephesians 5:14)
5. “encircled about by the bands of death” (Alma 5:7)
“for there are no bands in their death” (Psalm 73:4)
“He brought them out of darkness and the shadow of death, and brake their bands in sunder” (Psalm 107:14)
6. “have you sufficiently retained in remembrance the captivity of your fathers? (Alma 5:6)
“But thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in Egypt, and the Lord thy God redeemed thee thence” (Deuteronomy 24:18)
7. “the bands of death, and the chains of hell” (Alma 5:7)
“delivered them into chains of darkness” (2 Peter 2:4)
8. “and an everlasting destruction did await them” (Alma 5:7)
“who shall be punished with everlasting destruction” (2 Thessalonians 1:9)
9. “and their souls did expand” (Alma 5:9)
“when thou shalt enlarge my heart” (Psalm 119:32)
10. “what grounds had they to hope for salvation?” (Alma 5:10)
“and for an helmet, the hope of salvation” (1 Thessalonians 5:8)
11. “put their trust in the true and living God’ (Alma 5:13)
“But the Lord is the true God, he is the living God” (Jeremiah 10:10)
12. “have ye spiritually been born of God” (Alma 5:14)
“Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God” (John 3:6)
13. “view this mortal body raised in immortality, and this corruption raised in incorruption” (Alma 5:15)
“For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality” (1 Corinthians 15:53)
14. “Come unto me ye blessed” (Alma 5:16)
“Come, ye blessed of my Father” (Matthew 25:34)
15. “can ye look up to God at that day with a pure heart and clean hands?” (Alma 5:19)
“He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart” (Psalm 24:4)
16. “a place to sit down in the kingdom of God, with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob” (Alma 5:24)
“shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 8:11)
17. “ye make our Creator a liar from the beginning” (Alma 5:25)
“he that believeth not God hath made him a liar” (1 John 5:10)
18. “they are the children of the kingdom of the devil” (Alma 5:25)
“thou child of the devil” (Acts 13:10)
19. “Have ye walked, keeping yourselves blameless before God?” (Alma 5:27)
“walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless” (Luke 1:6)
20. “who will come to redeem his people from their sins?” (Alma 5:27)
“for he shall save his people from their sins” (Matthew 1:21)
21. “he knoweth not when the time shall come” (Alma 5:29)
“ye know not what hour your Lord doth come” (Matthew 24:42)
“for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh” (Matthew           25:13)
22. “wo unto all ye workers of iniquity” (Alma 5:32)
“thou hatest all workers of iniquity” (Psalms 5:5)
23. “ye shall eat and drink of the bread and the waters of life freely” (Alma 5:34)
“And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely” (Revelation 22:17)
24. “ye shall not be hewn down and cast into the fire” (Alma 5:35)
“hewn down, and cast into the fire” (Matthew 7:19)
25. “whosoever bringeth forth not good fruit” (Alma 5:36)
“Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit” (Matthew 7:19)
26. “have gone astray, as sheep having no shepherd” (Alma 5:37)
“be not as sheep which have no shepherd” (Numbers 27:17)
“scattered abroad, as sheep having no shepherd” (Matthew 9:36)
27. “the good shepherd doth call you” (Alma 5:38)
“I am the good shepherd” (John 10:11)
28. “yea, and in his own name he doth call you” (Alma 5:38)
“he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out” (John 10:3)
29. “whatsoever is good cometh from God” (Alma 5:40)
“Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above” (James 1:17)
30. “how do ye suppose that I know of their surety?” (Alma 5:45)
“Now I know of a surety, that the Lord hath sent his angel” (Acts 12:11)
31. “they are made known unto me by the Holy Spirit of God” Alma 5:46)
“the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God” (1 Corinthians 2:11)
32. “according to the spirit of prophecy which is in me” (Alma 5:47)
“the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy” (Revelation 19:10)
33. “the Only Begotten of the Father, full of grace, and mercy, and truth” (Alma 5:48)
“the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth” (John 1:14)
34. “both old and young, both bond and free” (Alma 5:49)
“There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female” (Galatians 3:28)
35. “They must repent and be born again” (Alma 5:49)
“Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again” (John 3:7)
36. “the Son of God cometh in his glory, in his might, majesty, power, and dominion” (Alma 5:50)
“To the only wise God our Savior, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and forever” (Jude 1:25)
37. “the King of heaven shall very soon shine forth among all the children of men” (Alma 5:50)
“he shined forth from mount Paran” (Deuteronomy 33:2)
38. “ye can in nowise inherit the kingdom of heaven” (Alma 5:51)
“for theirs is the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 5:10)
39. “the Spirit saith: Behold, the ax is laid at the root of the tree” (Alma 5:52)
“And now also the ax is laid unto the root of the trees” (Matthew 3:10)
40. “fire which cannot be consumed, even an unquenchable fire” (Alma 5:52)
“the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable” (Luke 3:17)
41. “the Holy One hath spoken it” (Alma 5:52)
“the Holy One of Israel is our king” (Psalm 89:18)
42. “and trample the Holy One under your feet” (Alma 5:53)
“lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you” (Matthew 7:6)
43. “having been sanctified by the Holy Spirit” (Alma 5:54)
“being sanctified by the Holy Ghost” (Romans 15:16)
44. “come ye out from the wicked, and be ye separate, and touch not their unclean things” (Alma 5:57)
“all such as had separated themselves unto them from the filthiness of the heathen” (Ezra 6:21)
45. “behold, their names shall be blotted out” (Alma 5:57)
“blot out their name from under heaven” (Deuteronomy 9:14)
46. “For the names of the righteous shall be written in the book of life” (Alma 5:58)
“Let them be blotted out of the book of the living, and not be written with the righteous” (Psalm 69:28)
“And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire” (Revelation 20:15)
47. “unto them will I grant an inheritance at my right hand” (Alma 5:58)
“Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand…inherit the kingdom prepared for you…” (Matthew 25:34)
48. “he will bring you into his fold, and ye are his sheep” (Alma 5:60)
“and will bring them again to their folds” (Jeremiah 23:3)

Jacob 5: Phrases, Doctrines, and Metaphors beyond Isaiah 5 and Romans 11

Some dismiss chapter 5 of Jacob as simply a plagiarism of Isaiah 5 and Romans 11. The following is a list of Biblical references in Jacob 5 that are not found in Isaiah 5 or Romans 11. The purpose of this list is to illustrate the complexity of the allegory of the olive tree and how it has a deep foundation in Biblical imagery and doctrine not accounted for in Isaiah 5 or Romans 11, possibly providing evidence of its Semitic roots.

1. Planting trees in a vineyard = Some argue that it makes no sense that the allegory refers to an olive tree in a vineyard, with some attributing the supposed “error” to the mindless plagiarism of Isaiah 5 and Romans 11, and others arguing that this error is due to writer’s fatigue. Planting trees in vineyards, however, has its basis in other Biblical passages.

  • Jacob 5:3 = “a tame olive tree, which a man took and nourished in his vineyard”
  • Luke 13:8 = “A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard…”

2. Prune it, dig about it, nourish it, dung it = Had Jacob 5 been a simple plagiarism of Isaiah 5, then it would have only mentioned “pruning” and “digging.” Jacob 5 includes “dunging” and “nourishing,” which are not mentioned in Isaiah 5.

  • Jacob 5:4, 64 = “I will prune it, and dig about it, and nourish it…dig about them, and prune them, and dung them once more…”
  • Isaiah 5:6 = “it shall not be pruned, nor digged…”
  • Luke 13:8 = “till I shall dig about it, and dung it”

3. Shoot forth branches = It is unknown whether or not “shoot forth branches” was part of the vernacular of 19th century farmers, but regardless the phrase is found in various Old and New Testament scriptures.

  • Jacob 5:4 = “that perhaps it may shoot forth young and tender branches”
  • Ezekiel 17:7 = “and shot forth her branches toward him…”
  • Ezekiel 36:8 = “But ye, O mountains of Israel, ye shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to my people of Israel; for they are at hand to come”
  • Luke 21:30 = “when they now shoot forth, ye see and know…”

4. Those who abide in the vine/tree bring much fruit = The Lord of the Vineyard is Jehovah, the God of the Old Testament. Members of the LDS faith believe that Jesus Christ is Jehovah, making the verse in Jacob 5 a direct reference to the words of the Savior in the New Testament.

  • Jacob 5:20 = “this long time have I nourished it, and it hath brought forth much fruit.”
  • John 15:5 = “I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit…”

5. Young and tender branches = Once again, it is unknown whether the phrase “young and tender” was part of the vernacular of 19th century farmers, but the phrase is found in its exact form in the Old Testament.

  • Jacob 5:4 = “shoot forth young and tender branches”
  • Matthew 24:32 = “Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh”
  • Ezekiel 17:22 = “crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender one…”
  • 1 Chronicles 22:5 = “Solomon my son is young and tender…”

6. Cast withered branches into the fire that they are burned = The wording between these two passages is very similar, including the unusual phrase “into the fire that they may be burned.” Most English writers would simply say “cast into the fire” and omit “that they may be burned” because it would be redundant. This may lend support to the Semitic origins of the Book of Mormon

  • Jacob 5:7 = “branches which are beginning to wither away, and we will cast them into the fire that they may be burned.”
  • John 15:6 = “he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.”

7. The main top begins to perish and will be destroyed= The perishing of the olive tree is a direct reference to prophecies about the scattering of Israel. There is no reference to the perishing of an olive tree in Isaiah 5 or Romans 11.

  • Jacob 5:6-7 = “it began to put forth somewhat a little, young and tender branches; but behold, the main top thereof began to perish…we will pluck off those main branches which are beginning to wither away, and we will cast them into the fire that they may be burned”
  • Jeremiah 2:21 = “Yet I had planted thee a noble vine, wholly a right seed: how then art thou turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine unto me?”
  • Jeremiah 19:15/20:4 = “I will bring upon this city and upon all her towns all the evil that I have pronounced against it, because they have hardened their necks, that they might not hear my words…and I will give all Judah into the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall carry them captive into Babylon, and shall slay them with the sword”

8. Lord of the vineyard =

  • Jacob 5:8 = “And behold, saith the Lord of the vineyard…”
  • Luke 20:13 = “Then said the Lord of the vineyard…”

9. Lay up against the season = It is unknown if this was common vernacular during the time of Joseph Smith. Regardless, the language is consistent with that of the Bible.

  • Jacob 5:13 = “that I may lay up fruit thereof against the season, unto myself…”
  • 1 Timothy 6:19 = “Laying up in store for themselves a good foundation against the time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life.”

10. Good spot of ground/soil =

  • Jacob 5:25 = “Behold, this have I planted in a good spot of ground…”
  • Ezekiel 17:8 = “It was planted in a good soil by great waters, that it might bring forth branches, and that it might bear fruit, that it might be a goodly vine.”

11. Planting tender branches into a new spot of ground =

  • Jacob 5: 24 = “Look hither, and behold another branch also, which I have planted…”
  • Ezekiel 17:22-23 = “I will crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender one, and will plant it upon an high mountain and eminent…and it shall bring forth boughs, and bear fruit…”

12. Spare the tree a little longer =

  • Jacob 5:27, 50 = “Let us prune it, and dig about it, and nourish it a little longer…But behold, the servant said unto the Lord of the vineyard: Spare it a little longer.”
  • Luke 13:8-9 = “Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig about it, and dung it: and if it bear fruit, well: and if not, then after that thou shalt cut it down.”

13. None of the fruit is good =

  • Jacob 5:32 = “this time it hath brought forth much fruit, and there is none of it which is good.”
  • Psalms 14:3 = “They are all gone aside, they are all together become filthy: there is none that doeth good, no, not one.”

14. Corrupt trees bring evil fruit =

  • Jacob 5:38-39 = “Let us go down into the nethermost parts of the vineyard, and behold if the natural branches have also brought forth evil fruit… the fruit of the natural branches had become corrupt also; yea, the first and the second and also the last; and they had all become corrupt.”
  • Matthew 7:17, 19 = “Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit…Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire”

15. Trees are hewn down and cast into the fire =

  • Jacob 5:42 = “now all the trees of my vineyard are good for nothing save it be to be hewn down and cast into the fire.”
  • Matthew 3:10 = “every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.”

16. Cut down that which cumbers the ground =

  • Jacob 5:44 = “I also cut down that which cumbered this spot of ground, that I might plant this tree in the stead thereof.”
  • Luke 13:7 = “Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground?”

17. Stretched forth my hand all the day long =

  • Jacob 5:47 = “Have I slackened mine hand, that I have not nourished it? Nay, I have nourished it, and I have digged about it, and I have pruned it, and I have dunged it; and I have stretched forth mine hand almost all the day long, and the end draweth nigh.”
  • Isaiah 65:2 = “I have spread out my hands all the day unto a rebellious people, which walketh in a way that was not good, after their own thoughts.”
  • Romans 10:20-21 = “But Esaias is very bold, and saith, I was found of them that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me. But to Israel he saith, All day long I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people”

18. Loftiness of the vineyard = Loftiness in the Bible is associated with pride. Isaiah 5 and Romans 11 mention nothing of the height of the tree nor that the loftiness of the tree overpowers the roots.

  • Jacob 5:48 = “Is it not the loftiness of thy vineyard—have not the branches thereof overcome the roots which are good?”
  • Isaiah 2:12, 17 = “For the day of the Lord of hosts shall be upon every one that is proud and lofty…and the loftiness of man shall be bowed down…”
  • Ezekiel 31:10-11 = (Note: This is a prophecy referring to the fall of Egypt. However, the metaphor is similar to that in Jacob 5) “Because thou hast lifted up thyself in height, and he hath shot up his top among the thick boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his height; I have therefore delivered him into the hand of the mighty one of the heathen; he shall surely deal with him: I have driven him out for his wickedness”

19. Labor with our might =

  • Jacob 5:61 = “that we may labor diligently with our might in the vineyard…”
  • Ecclesiastes 9:9-10 = “and in thy labor which thou takest under the sun. Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might…”

20. Prepare the way = This is a clever use the phrase “prepare the way.” In preparing the way for the good fruit to grow, the writer also refers to prophecies of Isaiah.

  • Jacob 5:61, 64 = “labor diligently with our might in the vineyard, that we may prepare the way, that I may bring forth again the natural fruit…prepare the way for them, that they may grow”
  • Isaiah 40:3 = “The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God”
  • Matthew 3:3 = “The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.”

21. First shall be last; last shall be first =

  • Jacob 5:63 = “Graft in the branches; begin at the last that they may be first, and that the first may be last…”
  • Matthew 19:30 = “But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first.”

22. Let good and bad grow together = This similarity is particularly interesting because it shows two parables referring to different dilemmas (olive trees producing evil fruits vs. a wheat field being infested with tares) and yet teach the same doctrine about good and evil in the last days.

  • Jacob 5:65 = “And as they begin to grow ye shall clear away the branches which bring forth bitter fruit, according to the strength of the good and the size thereof; and ye shall not clear away the bad thereof all at once, lest the roots thereof should be too strong for the graft…”
  • Matthew 13:28-30 = “The servants said unto him; Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest…”

23. They shall be one =

  • Jacob 5:68 = “That they shall bring forth the natural fruit, and they shall be one.”
  • John 17:11 = “that they may be one, as we are.”

24. The laborers are few =

  • Jacob 5:70 = “And it came to pass that the Lord of the vineyard sent his servant; and the servant went and did as the Lord had commanded him, and brought other servants; and they were few.”
  • Matthew 9:37 = “Then saith he unto his disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few; Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers into his vineyard”

25. They will be one body =

  • Jacob 5:74 = “the trees had become again the natural fruit; and they became like unto one body…”
  • I Corinthians 12:13 = “For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles…”

26. The fruits were equal =

  • Jacob 5:74 = “and they became like unto one body; and the fruits were equal…”
  • Matthew 20:12 = “These last have wrought but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us…”

27. Satan will be bound but will return for a short time =

  • Jacob 5:76-77 = “For behold, for a long time will I lay up of the fruit of my vineyard unto mine own self against the season, which speedily cometh…And when the time cometh that evil fruit shall again come into my vineyard, then will I cause the good and the bad to be gathered…and my vineyard will I cause to be burned with fire.”
  • Revelation 20:2-3 = “And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled; and after that he must be loosed a little season”

28. Good and evil will be separated in the last days =

  • Jacob 5:77 = “then will I cause the good and the bad to be gathered; and the good will I preserve unto myself, and the bad will I cast away into its own place. And then cometh the season and the end”
  • Matthew 25:32 = “And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats”

29. The evil are cast away to their own place =

  • Jacob 5:77 = “and the good will I preserve unto myself, and the bad will I cast away into its own place.”
  • Acts 1:25 = “from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.”

Comparing Isaiah and the Book of Mormon (Part 2)

The following is a list of differences between chapters of Isaiah found in the Herald Heritage Reprint (1973) of the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon (BOM) and the King James version (KJV) of the Bible. The list will include comparisons between”Second Book of Nephi: Chapter 5″ (2 Nephi 6:16-18/7-8) and Isaiah 49:24-26/50-51/52:1-2.

Text that is found in the BOM but not in the KJVwill be bolded, underlined and italicized. Text that was excluded from the BOM that was found in the KJV will have a line through it.

“Second Book of Nephi: Chapter 5” (2 Nephi 6:16-18) and Isaiah 49:24-26

24 (Isaiah). “For shall the prey be taken from the mighty, or the lawful captive delivered?”

25. “But thus saith the Lord: Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken away, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered: for the Mighty God shall deliver his covenant people. For thus saith the Lord: I will contend with them him that contendeth with thee, and I will save thy children.

“Second Book of Nephi: Chapter 5” (2 Nephi 7) and Isaiah 50

1. Yea, for thus saith the Lord: Have I put thee away, or have I cast thee off forever? For thus saith the Lord: Where is the bill of your mother’s divorcement? To whom have I put thee away, or to which of my creditors is it to whom I have have I sold you? Yea, to whom have I sold you?…”

2. “wherefore, when I come came, there was was there no man?; when I called, yea, there was was there none to answer?

3. “O House of Israel, is my hand shortened at all that it cannot redeem, or have I no power to deliver? Behold, at my rebuke, I dry up the sea, I make their rivers a wilderness and their fish to stink stinketh, because the waters are dried up there is no water; and they die because of for thirst.”

4. “The Lord God hath given me the tongue of the learned, that I should know how to speak a word in season unto thee, O House of Israel. When ye are to him that is weary, he waketh morning by morning…”

5. “The Lord God hath appointed opened (it is changed back to “opened” in later editions) mine ear, and I was not rebellious…”

8. “And the Lord He is near, and he that justifieth me. Who will contend with me? Let us stand together. Who is mine adversary? Let him come near to me, and I will smite him with the strength of my mouth…”

9. “For Behold, the Lord God will help me. And all they which who is he that shall condemn me?, behold lo, all they they all shall wax old as a garment, and the moth shall eat them up.”

10. “Who is among you that feareth the Lord; that obeyeth the voice of his servent; that walketh in darkness, and hath no light? let him trust in the name of the Lord, and stay upon his God.

11. “…walk in the light of your fire, and in the sparks which that ye have kindled…”

“Second Book of Nephi: Chapter 5” (2 Nephi 78) and Isaiah 51-52:1-2

1. “Hearken unto me, ye that follow after righteousness, ye that seek the Lord: Look unto the rock from whence ye are hewn, and to the hole of the pit from whence ye are digged.”

2. “Look unto Abraham, your father; and unto Sarah, she that bare you: for I called him alone, and blessed him, and increased him.

4. “…and I will make my judgment to rest for a light thing (deleted in later editions) of the people.”

7. “Hearken unto me, ye that know righteousness, the people in whose heart I have written is my law…”

8. “Awake, awake, put on strength O arm of the Lord: awake as in the ancient days, in the generations of old…”

11. “…and come singing unto Zion; and everlasting joy and holiness shall be upon their heads; and they shall obtain gladness and joy: and sorrow and mourning shall flee away.”

12. “I am he; yea, I even I am he that comforteth you: Behold, who art thou, that thou shouldst be afraid of a man which that shall die, and of the son of man which shall be made like unto as grass;”

15. “But I am the Lord thy God, that divided the sea, whose waves roared: the Lord of Hosts is my his name.”

16. “And I have put my words in thy mouth, and I have hath covered thee in the shadow of mine hand, that I may plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth, and say unto Zion, Behold, thou art my people.”

17. “…thou hast drunken the dregs of the cup of trembling, and wrung them out;”

18. “and There is none to guide her among all the sons whom she hath brought forth; neither is there any that taketh her by the hand, of all the sons that she hath brought up.”

19. “These two sons things are come unto thee; who shall be sorry for thee? thy desolation and destruction, and the famine and the sword: And by whom shall I comfort thee?”

20. “Thy sons have fainted, save these two: they lie at the head of all the streets…”

21. “Therefore hear now this, thou afflicted, and drunken, and but not with wine…”

22. “Thus saith thy Lord, the Lord and thy God that pleadeth the cause of his people, Behold, I have taken out of thine hand the cup of trembling, even the dregs of the cup of my fury…”

23. “But I will put it into the hand of them that afflict thee; which I have said to thy soul, Bow down, that we may go over…”

Isaiah 52: 2 “Shake thyself from the dust; arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem…”

Comparing Isaiah in the Bible and the Book of Mormon (Part 1)

The following is a comparison of Chapter 6 in the First Book of Nephi (1 Nephi 20-21) in the original 1830 edition text of the Book of Mormon (BOM) and Isaiah 48-49 of the King James version of the Old Testament. In several instances, prophets in the BOM quote from Old Testament prophets, whose writing were contained on the plates of brass. There are several differences between the King James version of the revelations of Isaiah and the text provided by Nephi in the Herald Heritage Reprint (1973) of the 1830 edition of the BOM. It should be noted that much of the text (excluding spelling errors) in the 1830 edition and today’s 2013 version of the BOM are nearly identical. Some differences include changing the word “which” to “who” and adding “or out of the waters of baptism” in 1 Nephi 20:1 in later additions of the BOM (most likely to provide clarity to the meaning “waters of Judah”).

Text that is found in the BOM but not found in the Old Testament will be bolded, underlined, and italicizedText that is included in the Old Testament and not found in the BOM will have a line through the text. The chapters will not be reproduced in their entirety, but all changes aside from spelling errors will be noted.

“First Book of Nephi: Chapter 6” (1 Nephi 20)/Isaiah 48

Verse 1.”Hearken and hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, which swear by the name of the Lord, and make mention of the God of Israel, yet they swear but not in truth, nor in righteousness-”

2. “Nevertheless For they call themselves of the Holy city, but they do not and stay themselves upon the God of Israel, which is the Lord of hosts; yea, the Lord of hosts is his name.”

3. “Behold, I have declared the former things from the beginning; and they went forth out of my mouth, and I shewed them; I did shew them suddenly, and they came to pass.

4. “And I did it because I knew that thou art obstinate, and thy neck was an iron sinew, and thy brow brass;”

5. “And I have, even from the beginning, declared it to thee; before it came to pass I shewed them it thee; and I shewed them for fear lest thou shouldst say, Mine idol hath done them; and my graven image, and my molten image, hath commanded them.”

6. “Thou hast seen and heard see all this; and will ye not declare them it? And that I have shewed thee new things from this time, even hidden things, and thou didst not know them.”

7. “They are created now, and not from the beginning; even before the day when thou heardest them not, they were declared unto thee, lest thou shouldst say, Behold, I knew them.”

8. “Yea, and thou heardest not; yea, thou knewest not; yea, from that time, that thine ear was not opened…”

9. “Nevertheless, for my name‘s sake will I defer mine anger, and for my praise will I refrain from for thee…”

10. “For, behold, I have refined thee, but not with silver; I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction.”

11. “For mine own sake, yea even, for mine own sake, will I do this it; for I will not suffer how should my name to be polluted…”

12. “Hearken unto me, O Jacob and Israel, my called; for I am he; and I am the first, and I am also also am the last.”

13. “Mine hand hath also also hath laid the foundations of the earth, and my right hand hath spanned the heavens: and when I called unto them, and they stand up together.”

14. “All ye, assemble yourselves, and hear; which among them hath declared these things unto them? The Lord hath loved him: yea, and he will fulfill his word which he hath declared by them; and he will do his pleasure on Babylon, and his arm shall come upon be on the Chaldeans.”

15. “Also, saith the Lord; I the Lord, yea, even I have spoken, yea, I have called him, to declare I have brought him…”

16. “Come ye near unto me, hear ye this: I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; from the time that it was declared, have I spoken there am I; and now the Lord God, and his spirit, hath sent me.”

17. “And thus saith the Lord, thy Redeemer, the Holy one of Israel; I have sent him am, the Lord thy God, which teacheth thee to profit, which leadeth thee by the way that thou shouldst go, hath done it.

19. “Thy seed also had been as the sand, and the offspring of thy bowels like the gravel thereof…”

20. “…with a voice of singing declare ye, tell this, utter it even to the end of the earth…”

21. “And they thirsted not; when he led them through the deserts: he caused the waters to flow out of the rock for them: he cleaved clave the rock also, and the waters gushed out.”

22. “And notwithstanding he hath done all this, and greater also, There is no peace, saith the Lord, unto the wicked.”

“First Book of Nephi: Chapter 6” (1 Nephi 21)/Isaiah 49

1. “And again: Hearken, O ye house of Israel, all ye that are broken off and driven out, because of the wickedness of the pastors of my people; yea, all ye that are broken off, that are scattered abroad, which are of my people, O house of Israel. Listen, O isles, unto me…”

4. “…I have spent my strength for nought, and in vain; yet surely, my judgment is with the Lord…”

5. “And now, saith the Lord, that formed me from the womb that I should to be his servant…”

7. “Thus saith the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One, to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the nations abhorreth, to a servant of rulers, Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship, because of the Lord that is faithful, and the Holy One of Israel, and he shall choose thee.

8. “Thus saith the Lord, In an acceptable time I have heard thee, O isles of the sea, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee: and I will preserve thee, and give thee my servant for a covenant of the people…”

9. “That thou mayest say to the prisoners, Go forth; to them that sit are in darkness, Shew yourselves…”

12. “And then, O house of Israel, behold, these shall come from far…”

13. “Sing, O heavens; and be joyful, O earth; for the feet of them which are in the east shall be established; and break forth into singing, O mountains: for they shall be smitten no more: for the Lord hath comforted his people…”

14. “But, behold, Zion hath said, The Lord hath forsaken me, and my Lord hath forgotten me; but he will shew that he hath not.

15. “For can a woman forget her sucking child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, they may forget, yet will I not forget thee, O house of Israel.

17. “Thy children shall make haste against thy destroyers; and they that made thee waste, shall go forth of thee.”

18. “Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold: all these gather themselves together, and they shall come to thee. And as I live, saith the Lord, thou shalt surely clothe thee with them all, as with an ornament, and bind them on thee even as a bride doeth.”

19. “The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other, shall again in thine ears say shall say again in thine ears, the place is too strait for me…”

21. “…Behold, I was left alone; these, where have had they been?

24. “For shall the prey be taken from the mighty, or the lawful captives delivered?”

26. ” And I will feed them that oppress thee with their own flesh; and they shall be drunken with their own blood…”