Does the Book of Mormon Share Solomon Spalding’s Writing Style? Debunking Dale Broadhurst’s “Spalding Authorship Page”

Critics of the Book of Mormon offer many theories as to its true origins. Most argue that Joseph Smith was the sole author of the Book of Mormon, using contemporary works as sources of inspiration, while others argue that a more qualified individual anonymously wrote the original manuscript. One theory is that an author named Solomon Spalding wrote the original manuscript of the Book of Mormon. Critics who support this theory try to support it by pointing out similarities in the writing styles between Spalding’s other writings and the Book of Mormon. Dale Broadhurst’s article on mormonthink.com titled “Spalding Authorship Page” provides one such list of parallels. The article identifies words and phrases that are shared by one of the Solomon Spalding manuscripts (The Oberlin Manuscript) and the Book of Mormon but which are not found in the Bible. It is argued that these shared words and phrases are unique to Solomon Spaulding and it is only logical to conclude that Spalding wrote both books.     

The problem with Broadhurst’s argument is that he does not bother to examine whether the phrases he identifies are found in other English translations of ancient documents. If the parallels Broadhurst identifies are found in other English translations of ancient documents, then there is nothing unusual about the Book of Mormon sharing words and phrases with Spalding’s manuscript.  

Not surprisingly, I was able to find most of the parallels identified by Broadhurst in “The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus”, “The History of the Peloponnesian War” by Thucydides, and “The Histories” by Herodotus, which are all documents centuries or thousands of years old, translated into English in the 18th through early 20th centuries. Several references were also found in the writings of the Ante-Nicene Fathers. Broadhurst identified 88 total parallels between Spalding and the Book of Mormon and I was able to find 82 out of those 88 (93%) parallels between Josephus, Thucydides, Herodotus, and the Ante-Nicene Fathers. A total of 70 (80%) of the words/phrases identified by Broadhurst are found in Josephus alone. The parallels I was not able to find in these four sources are highlighted in red. Links to the sources I used are listed below: 

  1. “The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus” written between 78 and 93 A.D.; translated into English by William Whiston in 1737. Retrieved from: http://www.ultimatebiblereferencelibrary.com/Complete_Works_of_Josephus.pdf 
  1. “The History of the Peloponnesian War” written by Thucydides between 431 and 400 B.C. and translated into English by Richard Crawley in 1874. Retrieved from: http://classics.mit.edu/Thucydides/pelopwar.mb.txt 
  1. “The History of Herodotus” written by Herodotus in 440 B.C. and translated into English by George Rawlinson in 1910. Retrieved from: http://classics.mit.edu/Herodotus/history.mb.txt 
  1. “The Ante-Nicene Fathers” which are early Christian documents written before 325 A.D. Translated by multiple authors in 1885. Retrieved from: https://holybooks.com/ante-nicene-fathers-vol-i-ix/ 

Here is the list of parallels identified by Broadhurst (bold text). The parallels I was able to find are in italicized text. 

An elegant horse (Oberlin Manuscript, 142:22) / The horses (Alma 18:12) 

  • “while all the Israelites were concerned in warlike affairs, and were in armor; and were set over the chariots and the horses, rather than leading the life of slaves” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VIII, Chapter 6:3) 
  • with wealth private and public, with ships, and horses, and heavy infantry” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter 3) 
  • “They feed their horses and their other beasts upon fish” (Herodotus Book V, Terpsichore) 

At the head of (ObMs 75) / At the head of (Alma 53:22)

  • “The king had also some intentions of himself to the same purpose, and this as well out of envy at his glorious expedition at the head of his army, as out of fear of being brought low by him and being instigated by the sacred scribes, he was ready to undertake to kill Moses” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 11:1) 
  • “and pointed out the imprudence of sending him out at the head of so large an army, with so serious a charge still undecided” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XVIII) 
  • at the head of an army against Athens, with orders to drive out the Pisistratidae” (Herodotus, Book V, Terpsichore) 

Marched his whole army (ObMs 156:13) / March forth with his whole army (Helaman 2:20) 

  • “but as for Varus himself, he marched to Samaria with his whole army” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 5:1) 

They retreated and marched (ObMs 157:26) / They retreated…and marched towards (Alma 49:12) 

  • “But as the Romans were going off, the Jews turned upon them, and fought them; and as those Romans came back upon them, they retreated again, until about the fifth hour of the day they were overborne, and shut themselves up in the inner [court of the] temple.” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VI, 4:4) 
  • and their provisions began to run short, they retreated and dispersed to their different cities” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter IX) 
  • choking up all the wells and springs as they retreated, and leaving the whole country bare of forage” (Herodotus, Book IV, Melpomene) 
  • “but as soon as Joseph heard that his brother was at a very great distance, he neglected the charge he had received, and marched towards Jericho with five cohorts, which Macheras sent with him” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book I, 17:1) 

March towards the land of (ObMs 138:15) / March towards the land (Alma 52:15) 

  • “When I had done this, I offered Ebutius battle; but when he would not accept of the offer, for he was terrified at our readiness and courage, I altered my route, and marched towards Neopolitanus, because I had heard that the country about Tiberias was laid waste by him” (Life of Flavius Josephus, 24) 
  • the land of Moab is its southern border, and its eastern limits reach to Arabia” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book III, 3:3) 
  • “but as soon as Joseph heard that his brother was at a very great distance, he neglected the charge he had received, and marched towards Jericho with five cohorts, which Macheras sent with him” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book I, 17:1) 
  • finding that he did not advance his designs by this deceit, marched towards the Araxes” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

An army of three thousand men (ObMs 74:5) / An army of two thousand men (Alma 58:8) 

  • and immediately there was an army of ten thousand men got ready for fighting” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book V, 6:3) 
  • “Pericles had already crossed over with an army of Athenians to the island” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter IV) 
  • “then let him come with an army of superior strength against the long-lived Ethiopians” (Herodotus, Book III, Thalia) 

Small band of (ObMs 157:8) / Our small bands (Alma 58:2) 

  • though but a small band against a numerous host, they engaged in battle” (Herodotus, Book 1, 176) 

Band of murderers (ObMs 116:16) / Band of robbers and secret murderers (Helaman 2:10) 

  • “but before they could come to a discourse one with another, the most potent men among the seditious made a sally upon them armed; their leader was one whose name was Jesus, the son of Shaphat, the principal head of a band of robbers” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book III, 9:7) 
  • if perchance you should be attacked upon the road by some band of daring robbers” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Marched with the greatest speed (ObMs 165:26) / March with speed (Alma 57:34) 

  • “So Joab resolved to make no delay, but taking with him his brother, and those six hundred men, and giving orders that the rest of the army which was at Jerusalem should follow him, he marched with great speed against Sheba; and when he was come to Gibeon, which is a village forty furlongs distant from Jerusalem, Amasa brought a great army with him, and met Joab”  (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VII, 11:7) 
  • “When Darius had thus spoken, he set out on his march with all speed” (Herodotus, Book IV, Melpomene) 

In the rear (ObMs 75) / In their rear (Alma 43:35) 

  • “and those that brought up the rear came last of all for the security of the whole army, being both footmen, and those in their armor also, with a great number of horsemen” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book III, 6:2) 
  • and suddenly appeared on the high ground in their rear, to the dismay of the surprised enemy and the still greater joy of his expectant friends” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XII) 

Their country and their God (OBMs 130:22) / Their country and also their God (Alma 62:02) 

  • “to have compassion upon their country and temple, their children and their wives, and not bring the utmost dangers of destruction upon them” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 12:5) 

Defend themselves against an invading enemy (ObMs 103:10) / defend themselves against their enemies (Alma 48:14) 

  • and besides the first to attack, or to show that they mean to defend themselves against an attack, inspire greater fear because men see that they are ready for the emergency” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XIX) 
  • “Next morning they commenced their fight, and great multitudes fell, as they had no arms with which to defend themselves” (Herodotus, Book II, Euterpe) 

Overthrow and destruction (ObMs 103:17) / Overthrow and destruction (Ether 8:23) 

  • His power itself and the entire system of His monarchy, are the overthrow and destruction thereof?” (Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume III, p. 1046) 

Immense slaughter (ObMs 151:30) / Great slaughter (Mosiah 10:20) 

  • “His brother Simon knew also of this his falling upon them, because he perceived that the enemies were slain by him; so he sallied out upon them, and burnt the engines which the Macedonians used, and made a great slaughter of them.” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XIII, 1:5) 
  • “they entirely demolished Anthedon and Gaza; many also of the villages that were about every one of those cities were plundered, and an immense slaughter was made of the men who were caught in them” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 18:1) 
  • “the allies retreating after the Athenians were attacked by the Syracusans from the fort, and a large part of their army routed with great slaughter” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter XI) 
  • “The combat was long; but at last, after a great slaughter on both sides, the Lydians turned and fled” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Fell and, with a groan, expired (ObMs 155:30) / Fell dead without a groan (Helaman 2:9) 

  • But a happy and unconquered patience endured these execrable lacerations of their bodies without a groan” (Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume VII, p. 276) 

Bury the dead (ObMs 171:8) / Bury their dead (Mosiah 9:19) 

  • While the enemy was taking up his dead and hastily burying them as he could” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter XI) 
  • “They bury their dead in honey, and have funeral lamentations like the Egyptians” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Fight like wolves (ObMs 76:11) / Fight like dragons (Alma 43:44) 

  • which of the Ionians fought like brave men and which like cowards, I cannot declare with any certainty, for charges are brought on all sides” (Herodotus, Book VI, Erato) 

Determined to conquer or die (ObMs 147:1) / Determined to conquer in this place or die (Alma 56:17) 

  • they must never flee from the battle before whatsoever odds, but abide at their post and there conquer or die” (Herodotus, Book VII, A.D. Godley translation, 1920-1925) 

Determined to (ObMs 2:1) / Determined to (Alma 46:2) 

  • “But the inhabitants of this city having determined to continue in their allegiance to the Romans, were afraid of my coming to them, and tried, by putting me upon another action, to divert me, that they might be freed from the terror they were in” (Life of Flavius Josephus, 22) 
  • he at last determined to draw his men into as small a space as possible, and 
  • force his way with a run into Potidaea” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter II) 
  • the Scythians determined to take one of the boys whom they had in charge, cut him in pieces” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Impossible to describe the horror…the blood and carnage (ObMs 162:1) / It is impossible for the tongue to describe…the blood and carnage (Mormon 4:11) 

  • Now it is impossible to describe the multitude of the shows as they deserve, and the magnificence of them all “(Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VII, 5:5) 
  • “I saw the back-bones and ribs of serpents in such numbers as it is impossible to describe” (Herodotus, Book II) 
  • to be free from the threatening destruction of the world, and not to be mixed up with the bloody carnage of wasting diseases in a common lot with others” (The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 5, p. 1418) 

Spread death and carnage (ObMs 149:2) / Spread so much death and carnage (3 Nephi 2:11) 

Surrendered themselves prisoners of war (ObMs 117:9) / Surrendered themselves prisoners of war (Alma 57:14) 

  • “insomuch that all Perea had either surrendered themselves, or were taken by the Romans” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book IV, 7:6) 
  • “immediately set free all the prisoners of war in their possession” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XV) 

By a stratagem (ObMs 78:10) / By stratagem (Alma 43:30) 

  • “he had routed those four commanders by stratagems” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 21:7) 
  • “He therefore prepared to assail them by stratagem” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XV) 
  • “My counsel, therefore, is that we cross the stream, and pushing forward as far as they shall fall back, then seek to get the better of them by stratagem” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Sallied forth/out (ObMs 155:19/153:32) / Sally forth (Alma 56:29) 

  • “As for those that were within it, no one had the courage to sally out, because those that assaulted them were so numerous” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 17:7) 
  • “and upon a small force of heavy infantry and horse sallying out against them by certain gates” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXIII) 
  • “while they lived at the foot of Hymettus, were wont to sally forth from that region and commit outrages on their children” (Herodotus, Book VI, Erato) 

Massacre of a barbarous (ObMs 158:22) / Massacred by the barbarous cruelty (Alma 48:24) 

  • “Now the overthrow of the places of strength, and the death of the high priest Ananias, so puffed up Manahem, that he became barbarously cruel” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 17:9) 

Narrow passage (ObMs 156:31) / Narrow passage (Mormon 2:29) 

  • which stopped up the narrow passages, they retired to the camp” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 15:5) 
  • encompass the building, leaving only a narrow passage by which it is approached” (Herodotus, Book II) 
  • and so arrived in time to occupy the narrow pass between two hills” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XIV) 

With such fury (ObMs 73:5) / With such fury (Alma 52:36) 

  • “which fell with such fury upon the Lacedaemonians as to kill numbers” (Herodotus, Book V, Terpsichore) 
  • “As Titus was saying this, an extraordinary fury fell upon the men; and as Trajan was already come before the fight began, with four hundred horsemen, they were uneasy at it, because the reputation of the victory would be diminished by being common to so many” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book III, 10:3) 
  • in the fury of the moment determined to put to death not only the prisoners at Athens“ (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter IX) 

Upon your head with a tenfold vengeance (ObMs 119:12) / Upon your heads for vengeance (Alma 60:10) 

Strength and courage (ObMs 149:8) / Strength and Courage (Alma 43:43) 

  • “by declaring to them distinctly the good order of the Romans, and that they were to fight with men who, both by the strength of their bodies and courage of their souls, had conquered in a manner the whole habitable earth” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 20:7) 

Heaps (ObMs 157:7) / Heaps (Alma 50:1) 

  • “So Titus pressed upon the hindmost, and slew them; and of the rest, some he fell upon as they stood on heaps, and some he prevented, and met them in the mouth, and run them through” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book III, 10:3) 
  • but there the south-wind rose and buried them under heaps of sand” (Herodotus, Book IV, Melpomene) 

When Hamboon had…he immediately (ObMs 122:6) / When Moronihah had…he immediately (Helaman 1:28) 

  • when Varus was gone to Antioch, and Archclaus was sailed to Rome, he immediately went on to Jerusalem, and seized upon the palace” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 2:2) 

The remainder (ObMs 157:28) / The remainder (Alma 43:32) 

  • “But when he was come near to Jerusalem, he was forced to fight, and lost six thousand men in the battle; three thousand of which fell down dead, and three thousand were taken alive; so he fled with the remainder to Alexandrium” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book I, 8:3) 
  • “sending their contingent and cavalry to join the Peloponnesian expedition, went to Plataea with the remainder and laid waste the country” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI) 
  • the remainder of the voyagers, male and female, sing the while, and make a clapping with their hands” (Herodotus, Book II, Euterpe) 

The remaining part of (ObMs 85:16) / The remaining part of (Alma 43:25) 

  • “he marched to take the remaining parts of Galilee, and to drive away the garrisons placed there by Antigonus” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book I, 16:1) 

Even Bombal himself (ObMs 84:13) / Even the king himself (Mosiah 20:7) 

  • and here vast numbers of the Persians were slain, and even Mardonius himself received a wound” (Herodotus, Book VI, Erato) 
  • When the news was brought to Athens, for a long while they disbelieved even the most respectable of the soldiers who had themselves escaped from the scene of action and clearly reported the matter” (Thucydides, Book VIII, Chapter XXIV) 

Himself was slain (ObMs 149:30) / Himself was slain (Helaman 1:32) 

  • “wherein he himself was to be slain, as well as his daughter Myrrha, and wherein a great deal of fictitious blood was shed, both about him that was crucified, and also about Cinyras” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XIX, 1:13) 

Great was (ObMs 169:26) / Great was (1 Nephi 16:32) 

  • “which Josephus agreed to, upon condition that he would himself cutoff the other hand; accordingly he drew his sword, and with his right hand cut off his left, so great was the fear he was in of Josephus himself” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 21:10) 
  • Great was the melee, and quite in contradiction to the naval tactics usual to the two combatants“ (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XII) 
  • Great was his incredulity when this answer arrived, for never, he thought, would brazen men arrive to be his helpers” (Herodotus, Book II, Euterpe) 

Lest we should (ObMs 34:1) / Lest they should (Alma 56:24) 

  • “and in wishing him good success in that his succession; while yet this Archelaus, lest he should be in danger of not being thought the genuine son of Herod, began his reign with the murder of three thousand citizens” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 6:2) 
  • lest we should also involve ourselves in risks of their choosing, has now proved to be folly and weakness” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter II) 
  • “Harpagus, seeing the cowherd in the room, did not betake himself to lies, lest he should be confuted and proved false” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Desirous (ObMs 98:1) / Desirous (Alma 46:4) 

  • “But the people were desirous of making Florus ashamed of his attempt, and met his soldiers with acclamations, and put themselves in order to receive him very submissively” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 14:7) 
  • “Upon this the Peloponnesians, desirous of aiding the Aeginetans, threw into Aegina a force of three hundred heavy infantry” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter IV) 
  • “if thou art so mightily desirous of meeting the Massagetae in arms, leave thy useless toil of bridge-making” (Herodotus, Book I) 

Astonished at (ObMs 64:23) / Astonished at (Alma 14:6) 

  • “This excited a very among great tumult among the Jews when it was day; for those that were near them were astonished at the sight of them, as indications that their laws were trodden under foot” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 9:2) 
  • “At the sight of the arms of the Ambraciots from the city, the herald was astonished at their number” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter XI) 
  • “Then he, astonished at what was done, sent a messenger to Psammenitus, and questioned him” (Herodotus, Book III) 

The minds of (ObMs 108:28) / The minds of (Alma 16:16) 

  • “Nor indeed were the minds of the Idumeans at rest; for they were in a rage at the injury that had been offered them by their exclusion out of the city” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book IV, 4:5) 

Thus ended the (ObMs 16:23) / Thus ended the (Mosiah 29:47) 

  • “nor the greatness of the veneration paid to it on a religious account, been sufficient to preserve it from being destroyed. And thus ended the siege of Jerusalem” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VI, 10:1) 
  • Winter thus ended, and with it the eighteenth year of this war of which Thucydides is the historian” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXI) 
  • Thus ended the affair of the suitors; and thus the Alcmaeonidae came to be famous throughout the whole of Greece” (Herodotus, Book VI, Erato) 

Among the people (ObMs 53:3) / Among the people (Alma 43:1) 

  • “At these words of his a great sadness and silence were observed among the people” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VI, 2:1) 

Prepared to (ObMs 36:13) / Prepared to (Jarom 1:9) 

  • “Now when the Egyptians had overtaken the Hebrews, they prepared to fight them, and by their multitude they drove them into a narrow place” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 15:3) 
  • “Megara prepared to accompany them with eight ships, Pale in Cephallonia with four” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter II) 
  • “and had a fair ground of complaint against the Athenians, they instantly prepared to revenge themselves” (Herodotus, Book VI, Erato) 

Tarry (OBMs 111) / Tarry (1 Nephi 4:35) 

  • “But when David had numbered his followers, and found them to be about four thousand, he resolved not to tarry till Absalom attacked him” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VII, 10:1) 
  • “thou shalt not come with me to fight these Greeks, but shalt tarry here with the women” (Herodotus, Book VII, Polymnia) 

Strength and (ObMS 49:11) / Strength and (Alma 39:2) 

  • “Now David’s men were conquerors, as superior in strength and skill in war” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VII, 10:2) 
  • “the degradation of cowardice must be immeasurably more grievous than the unfelt death which strikes him in the midst of his strength and patriotism!” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI) 
  • “In the one stood the palace of the kings, surrounded by a wall of great strength and size” (Herodotus, Book I, Euterpe) 

The great founder of our government (ObMs 128:12) / The great head of our government (Alma 60:24) 

Whole army (ObMs 136:32) / Whole army (Alma 47:13) 

  • “he gave order that the whole army should take their entire armor, and come to Antonia” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XX, 5:3) 
  • After the whole army had mustered, the Lacedaemonian king, Archidamus, the leader of the expedition, called together the generals of all the states and the principal persons and officers” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI) 
  • “bid thy whole army attack the city on every side, and put me two bodies of Persians” (Herodotus, Book III, Thalia) 

Of the righteous (ObMs 57:16) / Of the righteous (2 Nephi 9:13) 

  • “but the number of the righteous will continue, and never fail, together with righteous angels” (Josephus, Discourse to the Greeks Concerning Hades, 6) 

With a loud voice (ObMs 130:30) / With a loud voice (1 Nephi 8:15) 

  • “As Josephus was speaking thus with a loud voice, the seditious would neither yield to what he said” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book V, 10:1) 
  • called with a loud voice upon the god Apollo, and prayed him” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

With one voice (ObMs 138:11) / With one voice (Mosiah 4:2) 

  • “the Jews were terribly confounded, and the city, with one voice, sorely lamented him” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VII, 6:4) 

Plain (ObMs 136:22) / Plains (Alma 52:20) 

  • “Now the plain in which they first dwelt was called Shinar” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, 4:1)  
  • he could then fearlessly ravage the plain in future invasions” (Thucydides, Book II, Chaptever VI) 
  • which there open upon a spacious plain communicating with the great plain of Egypt” (Herodotus, Book II, Euterpe) 

Many thousands (ObMs 166:13) / Many thousands (Words of Mormon 1:14) 

  • “The wives said, that ‘Saul had slain his many thousands of the Philistines’” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VI, 10:1) 
  • how would it have been possible for Hercules alone, and, as they confess, a mere mortal, to destroy so many thousands?” (Herodotus, Book II, Euterpe) 

Compelled (ObMs 147:16) / Compelled (Alma 11:2) 

  • “Joab slew many of them, but compelled the rest to betake themselves to flight” (Josephus, Antiquities, Book VII, 6:2) 
  • “they should be themselves compelled by this violence to seek friends in quarters where they had no desire to seek them” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter II) 
  • “If I relate anything else concerning these matters, it will only be when compelled to do so by the course of my narrative.” (Herodotus, Book II, Euterpe) 

Obliged to (ObMs 37:9) / Obliged to (1 Nephi 3:26) 

  • “they might be obliged to worship the gods they themselves worshipped” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XII, 3:2) 
  • “that they might themselves be obliged to fight single-handed, or be unable to retreat, if they wished it, without danger” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter XI) 
  • “and if a person entered one of the other mouths of the Nile, he was obliged to swear that he had not come there of his own free will” (Herodotus, Book II, Euterpe) 

On every side (ObMs 26:4) / On every side (Mosiah 21:5) 

  • “and came himself to the city, which was strong on every side, excepting the north” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XIV, 4:1) 
  • “running down from the hills on every side and darting their javelins” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter XI) 
  • “bid thy whole army attack the city on every side, and put me two bodies of Persians, one at the Belian, the other at the Cissian gates” (Herodotus, Book III, Thalia) 

That we should (ObMs 122:20) / That we should (1 Nephi 3:19) 

  • “gave order that we should take care that these things should be done according to the senate’s decree” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XIV, 10:22) 
  • “but after they at length understood that we should not tamely suffer it” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter II) 
  • “my judgment is that we should act at once, and not any longer delay” (Herodotus, Book III, Thalia) 

The blood of (ObMs 79:23) / The blood of (Alma 48:25) 

  • “and all over herself besmeared with the blood of her husband’s wounds” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XIX, 2:4) 
  • “The Scythian soldier drinks the blood of the first man he overthrows in battle” (Herodotus, Book IV, Melpomene) 

For the purpose of (ObMs 45:11) / For the purpose of (2 Nephi 25:18) 

  • “But no one can be too hard for the purpose of God, though he contrive ten thousand subtle devices for that end” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 9:2) 
  • “and the isthmuses being occupied for the purposes of commerce and defence against a neighbour” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter I) 
  • “whether they be men, women, or children, to meet together in large companies, for the purpose of drinking wine” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Were met by (ObMs 167:3) / Were met by (Alma 51:29) 

  • “But now within a day’s time came Antonius, with his army, and were met by Vitellius and his army” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book IV, 11:4) 
  • “where they were met by the whole levy from Athens, agreeably to a concerted signal” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter XI) 
  • “Their demands were met by a reference to the violence which had been offered to Medea” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Whispers me (ObMs 154:28) / Whispereth me (Words of Mormon 1:2) 

  • “and anointed him, and whispered him in the ear” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VI, 8:1) 

On the part of the (ObMs 81:1) / On the part of the (Alma 31:4) 

  • An attempt on the part of Nicostratus to reassure them and to persuade them to rise proving unsuccessful” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter X) 
  • Accordingly they were making ready to take their revenge when a freshstir on the part of the Lacedaemonians” (Herodotus, Book V, Terpsichore) 

Maintain (ObMs 61:13) / Maintain (Alma 50:39)  

  • “I also laughed at the allegation about witchcraft, (13) and told them that the Romans would not maintain so many ten thousand soldiers” (Life of Flavius Josephus, 31) 
  • The court which we paid to their commons and its leaders for the time being also helped us to maintain our independence” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter IX) 
  • The Crotoniats, on the other hand, maintain that no foreigner lent them aid in their war against the Sybarites” (Herodotus, Book V, Terpsichore) 

Commenced (ObMs 158:15) / Commenced (1 Nephi 8:23) 

  • “a war was commenced presently, and the dearest friends fell a fighting one with another about it” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VI, 3:3) 
  • and thus commenced, according to their authors, the series of outrages” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Carried into effect (ObMs 74:25) / Carried this plan into effect (Alma 50:30) 

  • “This was no sooner settled than carried into effect; they descended gradually from the upper lines and manned all their vessels” (Thucydides, Book VII, Chapter XXIII) 
  • “but on the contrary, before the year was out, they carried into effect the following measures” (Herodotus, Book VI, Erato) 

Their course (ObMs 114:6) / Their course (Mosiah 22:11) 

  • “that it was fit they should change their courses while their affairs were still in a good state” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book IV, 6:10) 
  • made sail in that direction, but were carried out of their course by a gale of wind from the east” (Herodotus, Book IV, Melpomene) 

Conducted (ObMs 34:13) / Conducted (Alma 27:20) 

  • “but the people conducted those tribes on their journey, and that not without tears in their eyes” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book V, 1:25) 
  • he had further injured himself in public estimation by his loitering at the Isthmus and the slowness with which the rest of the march had been conducted” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VI) 
  • But if you truly wish to keep us as your wives, and would conduct yourselves with strict justice towards us” (Herodotus, Book IV, Melpomene) 

Disposition (ObMs 162:7) / Disposition (Alma 43:6) 

  • “while they were in this good disposition, about the recovery of their liberty” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VI, 2:1) 
  • Such was the strength and disposition of the Boeotian army” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XIV) 
  • and their disposition, sometimes drawing them apart for converse, sometimes bringing them all together” (Herodotus, Book Vi, Erato) 

Ran and told (ObMs 167:17) / Ran and told (Alma 22:19) 

  • “but the principal keeper of the prison did not only obstruct him in that his intention, but ran and told the king what his design was” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book I, 33:7) 

When he had (ObMs 82:9) / When he had (Alma 46:17) 

  • “and drove Epiphanes out of the country when he had made a second expedition into it” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book I, 1:4) 
  • but when he had gone away and disappeared, without their having stirred to pursue him, they began anew to find fault with their generals” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XVI) 
  • Darius, when he had thus appointed Xerxes his heir, was minded to lead forth his armies” (Herodotus, Book VII, Polymnia) 

More numerous (ObMs 32:23) / More numerous (Alma 46:29) 

  • “Are you richer than the Gauls, stronger than the Germans, wiser than the Greeks, more numerous than all men upon the habitable earth?” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, 16:4) 
  • They could see with their own eyes that they were many times more numerous than the enemy” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XII) 
  • The Indians, who are more numerous than any other nation with which we are acquainted” (Herodotus, Book III, Thalia) 

Exercise the same authority (ObMs 86:24) / Exercise authority (Mosiah 21:3) 

  • “This was now converted to a house, wherein Simon exercised his tyrannical authority” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book V, 4:3) 
  • without experiencing any of the embarrassment of a younger brother unused to the exercise of authority” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XIX) 
  • the several nations of the empire exercised authority over each other in this Order” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Rights and privileges (ObMs 61) / Rights and privileges (Mosiah 29:1) 

  • “and that no dispute had been raised about those rights and privileges, even when Aquila was governor of Alexandria” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XIX, 5:2) 

Welfare of the people (ObMs 59) / Welfare of this people (Alma 60:9) 

  • “we ought, in the first place, to pray for the common welfare of all, and after that for our own” (Josephus, Flavius Against Apion, Book II, 24) 
  • The sacrificer is not allowed to pray for blessings on himself alone, but he prays for the welfare of the king, and of the whole Persian people” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Avenge their wrongs (ObMs 130:32) / Aveng their wrongs (Alma 54:24) 

  • and sent them a present to Alyattes, to avenge a wrong which he had received” (Herodotus, Book III, Thalia) 

At the time (ObMs 6:11) / At the time (1 Nephi 14:23) 

  • “and to endeavor to please them at the time when they are so near us, would bring such a reproach upon us as were worse than death” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book IV, 4:3) 
  • As it happened, his recall came just at the time when the hatred which he had inspired had induced the allies to desert him” (Thucydides, Book I, Chapter IV) 
  • As, however, at the time of which we speak the tract had not yet been so supplied” (Herodotus, Book III, Thalia) 

Firmly Determined (ObMs 106:1) / Firm determination (Alma 49:13) 

  • and remaining firm in their determination were dismissed by the Lacedaemonians” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XV) 

With boldness (ObMs 142) / With boldness (mosiah 7:12) 

  • “if any one came with boldness, he was esteemed a contemner of them” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book IV, 6:1) 

Anxiety (ObMs 106) / Anxiety (2 Nephi 1:16) 

  • the state of their ships also causing them some anxiety” (Thucydides, Book II, Chapter VIII) 

Arose (ObMs 7) / Arose (1 Nephi 8:23) 

  • “but when he arose out of his bed, he forgot the accomplishment” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book X, 10:3) 
  • “But their greatest discouragement arose from the unexpectedly long time which it took to reduce a body of men shut up in a desert island” (Thucydides, Book IV, Chapter XII) 
  • “they joyfully had recourse to him in the various quarrels and suits that arose” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Sunk (ObMs 28) / Sunk (1 Nephi 12:4) 

  • “considered with themselves how much their happy state was sunk below what it had been of old, as well as their temple” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XI, 4:2) 
  • “For at this time Lacedaemon had sunk very low in public estimation because of her disasters” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XVI) 
  • “When they had eaten and drunk their fill, and were now sunk in sleep” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Immediately (ObMs 2) / Immediately (2 Nephi 25:10) 

  • “who, upon receiving that epistle from Cyrus, came, and immediately laid its foundations” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XI, 4:4) 
  • “as a fresh assailant has always more terrors for an enemy than the one he is immediately engaged with” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XV) 
  • “This they proclaimed in all directions, and immediately the rumour spread throughout the country districts that Minerva was bringing back her favourite” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Arts of war (ObMs 3) / Arts of war (Ether 13:16) 

  • “He was also too hard for the Jews, by the Romans’ skill in the art of war” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book I, 18:2 
  • “especially as they were, one might say, novices in the art of war” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XX) 

Learned (ObMs 4) / Learned (2 Nephi 9:28) 

  • “Now the king had put up a golden eagle over the great gate of the temple, which these learned men exhorted them to cut down” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book I, 33:2) 
  • while those who mistrust their own cleverness are content to be less learned than the laws” (Thucydides, Book III, Chapter IX) 

With great (ObMs 4) / With great (Mosiah 29:27) 

  • “When Jonathan, who was Judas’s brother, succeeded him, he behaved himself with great circumspection in other respects” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book I, 2:1) 
  • This announcement was received with great indignation by the Athenians” (Thucydides, Book V, Chapter XVI) 
  • “one of pure gold, the other of emerald, shining with great brilliancy at night” (Herodotus, Book II, Euterpe) 

With great joy (ObMs 135) / With great joy (Alma 4:14) 

  • “But Jacob almost fainted away at this unexpected and great joy” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, 7:5) 
  • and hastening to Polycrates with great joy, restored it to him, and told him in what way it had been found” (Herodotus, Book III, Thalia) 

Great city (ObMs 38) / Great city (1 Nephi 1:4) 

  • “And where is now that great city, the metropolis of the Jewish nation, which vas fortified by so many walls round about” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VII, 8:7) 
  • and this is what the powerful and young among you aspire to, but in a great city cannot possibly obtain” (Thucydides, Book VI, Chapter XIX) 
  • Thus settled upon the throne, he further required them to build a single great city” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 

Great and good Spirit (ObMs 23) / Great Spirit (Jacob 3:7) 

  • “But David desired Barzillai the Gileadite, that great and good man” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VII, 11:4) 
  • ‘What is he, Diotima?’ ‘He is a great spirit (daimon), and like all spirits he is intermediate between the divine and the mortal’ (The Dialogues of Plato, Symposium, p. 1663) 

Great conqueror (ObMs 84) / Great commander (3 Nephi 3:18) 

  • and thus, as he was a great conqueror and prospered in his wars, the Carians were in his day the most famous by far of all the nations of the earth” (Herodotus, Book I, Clio) 
  • “Since I made thee a great man when thou wast little, or rather wast nothing, and rent the kingdom from the house of David” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VIII, 11:1)  
  • “and became a great leader of men into wicked courses” (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, 2:2) 

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